This Tanjore style painting beautifully portrays Kamadhenu, also known as Surabhi, that is
described in the Vedic scriptures as a Goddess who manifested herself in the
form of a wish fulfilling cow in Swargalok. The term Kamadhenu is a blend of
two words – “Kama” meaning “desire” or “wish” and “Dhenu” meaning “milk cow”.
Therefore, she miraculously grants the seeker whatever he desires and thus is honored
and considered to be the mother of all cows. The mother cow has a great
spiritual significance; she is an endless giver of resources and nourishment;
her mil sustains the life of many species and her urine is used for many
Every part of
her divine body is considered auspicious; her body complexion is like the pure
white clouds floating in the sky, the four legs represent the four Vedas, her
sharp conical horns symbolize the Trimurti Gods Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu, and
her face symbolize the sun and the moon. She is portrayed as a white cow having
a female head and wings of a tropical bird. Long black hair braided with golden
tassels reaching her breasts and a bunch of neckpieces around her delicate neck
look beautiful. A soft and gentle smile on her face describes her merciful and
unconditional nature as she provided everyone with everything. She is decorated
with a cloth and a tinkling bell around her back. Her four legs represent the
four purusharthas of life that help us to achieve our purpose of human life; Dharma,
Artha, Kama and Moksha. The special feature of this painting is the coating of
the adornments with pure gold and stones with precision. The Tanjore style
paintings always stand out from the ordinary paintings and this one has proved
Tanjore painting is a traditional form of art in the South Indian
style and was started by the inhabitants of a small town known as
Thanjavur of Tamil Nadu. This gives it another name called
“Thanjavur painting”. This painting draws its figures, designs,
and inspiration from the time when Vedic culture was prevalent in
India. Certain remarkable features of a Tanjore painting
distinguish it from other paintings. Some of these are pure gold
or gold foil coating on gesso work, the use of rich and vivid
colors, and the inlay of cut-glass or semi-precious and precious
stones. The subjects of most of the Tanjore paintings are Hindu
Gods, Goddesses, and saints. The main devotional figure is
portrayed in the central portion of the painting and is usually
surrounded by various secondary figures.
The classic Tanjore paintings are done on wooden planks and hence
are also referred to as Palagai Padam in South India (Palagai =
Wooden plank, Padam = Picture). Creating a masterpiece is never an
easy task but the skilled artists of Thanjavur have been following
the tradition of making timeless Tanjore paintings for decades.
The making process begins with preparing the wooden board or
canvas. The size of the board depends upon the choice of the
patron. The next step is to paste cardboard over the wooden board
and then a cotton fabric is stretched and pasted upon it using
Now that the cloth is attached to the wooden panel, a rough sketch
of the motifs and figure is drawn onto the fabric. After this, a
paste of chalk powder and water-soluble adhesive is evenly applied
over the base and smoothed.
Thereafter, the outlines which were made or traced using a stencil
are now ready to be beautified and decked with various add-ons.
The usual materials for decoration are cut-glass, pearls,
semi-precious and precious gems, gold leaf, and laces. 22 or 18
Karat Gold leaves and gems of varied hues are especially inlaid in
areas like pillars, arches, walls, thrones, and dresses.
In the final step, the rest of the painting is filled with rich
and striking colors such as shades of red, blue, and green.
Formerly, the artists used natural colors like vegetable and
mineral dyes instead of chemical paints. The entire painting is
then cleaned and refined to give a flawless finished look.
Since the making of a single piece of Tanjore painting requires a
complex and elaborate process, the artists usually take at least
one or two months to complete it. The use of pure gold foil and
gems for beautification is a characteristic of an authentic
Tanjore painting. Due to this, Tanjore paintings last for
generations without getting tarnished and are much more expensive
than general paintings. Though the art form has undergone various
changes and technique modifications over the years, it continues
to attract the hearts of art lovers.
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