Hindustani classical music has been orally preserved over centuries and Gharanas have rendered invaluable service in its transference, sustenance and cumulative growth.
The term Gharana literally is indicative of the continuity of kinship through family heredity and the continuity of its integral musical values or ideology, carried forward through transference of musical knowledge, Learning and the stylistic features from Guru (the mentor) to Shishya (disciples) over generations. The genesis of Gharana ideology is enshrined in the concept of Guru-Shishya Parampara which is the most significant factor in the teaching and learning of music or any other discipline and has been an integral part of all cultural traditions in India from ancient times.
Gharanas have been a formidable force in shaping the stylistic diversity of musical expressions in Hindustani music A Gharana is known mostly by the place from where its pioneer hailed or where he made his home such as Gwalior, Pigra, Jaipur-Atrauli. Kirana Patiala etc. The nomenclature thus derived mainly from the place of their origin, implies distinguishing features or distinctive style such as difference in intonation, musical idiom, method of melodic exploration and aesthetic appeal - in short stipulating an ideology of music making, possessing an aesthetic coherence and continuity over several generations. Gharanas in fact represent a total approach to music encapsulating the rich repertoire of Ragas and chizas/bandishes (compositions), philosophical approach and method of unfolding the raga, voice culture, even the application of the Sun. The blossoming of gharanas in various hues and fragrances, represented by towering musicianship has enriched Hindustani music.
Gwalior which provided patronage to Dhvupad Dhamar during the Moghal era (Emperor Akbar & Tansen) and medieval age by Raja Mansingh Tomar; became the place of patronage of the Khayal form later. Although Rhayal is said to be projected earlier in the court of Sultan Sharki of Jaunpore and Mohammad Shah Rangila of Delhi; it was in Gwalior that Khayal began to flourish as a singing style and reached a fair amount of maturity and popularity with tistads like Bare Mohammad Khan in the court of Daulat Rao Scindia. In the beginning of 19th century Pir Baksh came to Gwalior alogn with his grand sons Hassu Khan, Haddu Khan and Natthu Khan under his patronage and was asked to create a singing style specific to Gwalior. The creative endeavor of Natthan Pir Baksh and his grand sons Hassu Khan and Haddu Khan evolved an independent singing style which came to be described as Gwalior Gharana.
Pt. Laxman Krishnarao Pandit
Raga: Ramdasi Malhar
Raga: Gaud Malhar
Raga: Lalit (Marwa Thaat)
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