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A picturesque representation of Bengal depicted through texts

Magadhi apabhramsh and abahattha, two phases of Magadhi prakrit, lend credence to Bangla as a new Indo-Aryan language. The language emerged alongside Assamese and Oriya. Around the time of the Battle of Plassey, the dialect that was spoken in Bengal's Nadia region gave rise to what is now known as Contemporary Bengali. However, the language was divided into "shuddho bhasha" and "cholito bhasha," or official and informal versions, respectively.


The majority of Bengali Hindus conform to the doctrines and rituals that are largely outlined under the Hindu faith.  Most of them embrace the cult of Vaishnavism,  or the cult of Shaktism, with a few of them subscribing to a fusion of both. Some of the most popular Hindu deities in the state of Bengal are-

  • Lord Shiva: One of Hinduism's most important gods is Shiva, whom Shaivites revere as the Almighty. Through his dubious control over snakes, he is both the supreme yogi and the king of procreation, as well as the expert of both venom and healing. As Master of Livestock (Pashupata), he is the compassionate shepherd—or sometimes, the merciless assassin of the beasts—the people's souls under his protection.

  • Lord Krishna: Among the most loved and respected divinities in Hinduism, Krishna is perceived as Lord Vishnu's eighth embodiment. He is perhaps the most well-known of all the Hindu mythological champions. In the very popular epic, Mahabharata, the Bhagavad Gita, and the legendary Puranas, he is taken into account as the Almighty Being and the architect of the universe and chronicles his conquests.

  • Lord Sani: Lord  Shani is known to be an embodiment of Lord Vishnu who was entrusted with providing Hindus accessibility to the benefits of their virtuous existence. Because of a juvenile dispute with his brother Yama, Shani is frequently shown as limping. As per Astrology, Shani has an airy nature. His gemstone is a bluish sapphire, along with any other dark stones, and his element is lead. He looks west, and his day is Saturday. 

  • Goddess Saraswati: The connotations of Goddess Saraswati's name—"elegant," "moving," and "watery"—indicate that she was one of the earliest Aryan border rivers. The Saraswati Puja, which is celebrated on the very first day of spring, is one of the Goddess' own ceremonies. True believers wear yellow during the event since it symbolizes knowledge and wealth.


Bengal is known for its numerous literary greats, who aren’t only known nationally but internationally too. Probably the greatest Bengali personality ever born was Rabindranath Tagore.

In every way, Rabindranath Tagore was a versatile personality. He wrote the Indian National Anthem and received the Nobel Prize for Literature. He was a Brahmo Samaj intellectual, visual artist, screenwriter, author, painter, composer, and poet in Bengali. Furthermore, he was a cultural reformer who emancipated Bengali art from constraints that kept it within the domain of classical Indian aesthetics. He was a polymath, yet his creative feats alone are what catapult him to the highest tier of greatest of all time. Rabindranath Tagore is still acclaimed for his poetry compositions that are passionate and ethereal.

Even Dwijendranath Tagore, the elder brother of Rabindranath Tagore,  was a prolific author, songwriter, poet and philosopher. He was the main mind behind the core concept of one of Bengal’s most popular weekly newspapers, the Hitabadi and acted as its Editor for seven years. He is also known as a skilled composer and ushered in the concept of swaralipi or musical notations into Bengali songs. 


Some of the renowned saints of Bengal are:

  1. Ma Anandamayi: Anandamayi was a saintly woman who received no conventional spiritual education. She acquired the entirety of her reputation through euphoric moments. She didn't have a spiritual guru, but she heard voices telling her what meditation and religious practices to indulge in. She highlighted the value of religious fervor and separation from the outside world. She also motivated her disciples to do charitable work. She could not be categorized in any certain tradition, even though her parents were disciples of Krishna.

  2. Sri Chaitanya: Sri Chaitanya advocated Bhakti philosophy and established the Hare Krishna Maha-mantra recitation universal. He authored the devotional prayer, Shikshashtakam. Due to Chaitanya's visage, which resembles molten gold, he is lovingly called Gauranga by his disciples.

  3. Shamyacharan Lahiri: Babaji Maharaj appointed Shyamacharan Lahiri to implement the uncomplicated Kriya Yoga methods to awaken both householders and saints. He flourished into an established heavenly being with sthitaprajna and wisdom under the capable tutelage of his learned father, devout mother, and Babaji Maharaj. 

Philosophy - The essence of Bengali philosophy

Bengali intelligentsia took cues from Islamic egalitarianism, the essence of love preached in Vaishnavism , and Buddhist lifestyle. What is known as the humanitarian renaissance of thought was motivated by tantric sahajiya ideology, Hindu devotionalism, and the Islamic egalitarian principle. 


Q1. Who is considered to be the father of contemporary Bengali Novel Literature?

Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay is known as the Father of Contemporary Bengali Novel writing.

Q2. What is the ancient name given to the region of Bengal?

Bengal was initially called Kalinga.