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Manifest the art of dance and drama with Natyashastra

Comprising 6000 couplets in Sanskrit and 36 parts, Natyashastra's attention was on dance and drama, with music as a guide. The title is a blend of two Sanskrit words - Natya and Shastra. Natya alludes to the procedure of dance and drama, and shastra alludes to science. The showstopper portrays - the connection between the director and the crowd, organizing a play, acting procedures, ensembles and make-up, music and instruments to be utilized, the components of the stage and its embellishments with lighting, and the size of the lobby and seating of the crowd. Natyashastra orders instruments as (1) "tata" - stringed, (2) "avanadha" - covered percussion, (3) "sushira" - empty (woodwind), and (4) "ghana" - musicality supported like cymbals. This information on various instruments is fundamental for individuals who need to master singing. Bharata Muni clarified the connection between entertainers and the crowd through rasa-bhava anubhava.

He explained eight sorts of "rasas" and their "bhavas" or feelings. A "rasa" is a personal state. It signifies "juice" or sap. A "rasa" is usually the predominant overarching emotion through an art form. It is the enjoyment and delight experienced by an art form. "Bhava" signifies to turn into. It is a perspective whose result is a "rasa". Knowing how to sing with feeling is a significant ability to grasp if you have any desire to figure out how to sing great. Bhava is the fervor felt by the person and conveyed to the crowd through different sensations by the entertainer, bringing about the crowd to experience the rasa to the fullest. According to Bharata, bhava without help from anyone else is fragmented and conveys no significance without the rasa. As per Bharata, Natyashastra mimics the world. Natyashastra will be the instrument of guidance for the world apart from being a source of amusement and joy.

Natyashastra incorporates all information, creation, workmanship, legend, compelling artwork, plan, feelings, and demonstrations of life. Natyashastra means the happenings in the existence of divine beings, devils, lords, families, men, and sages who have profound information. The nature and conduct of the world personally, as a matter of fact, associated with bliss and hopelessness, as delivered by physical and different types of acting, to be called Natyashastra. Bharata says that the whole idea of individuals as associated with the experience of satisfaction and misery, bliss and distress introduced through the course of the drama (Abhinaya) is called Natya. Its numerous sections contain nitty-gritty treatments of the relative multitude of different expressions that are encapsulated in the classical Indian idea of the drama, including dance, music, poetics, and general feel. Its essential significance lies in its support of the Indian drama as a vehicle of religious illumination.


Q1. Why was Natyashastra composed?

Indra made sense that individuals knew nothing about the integrity of Vedas and the Sudras were not permitted to learn Vedas. He mentioned a toy, kridanikya to individuals to redirect them from evil methodologies. In these conditions, Brahma separated the components from each of the four Vedas and made 'Natyaveda'.

Q2. What are the four types of acting mentioned in natyashastra?

The Natyashastra talks about four unique styles of Natya or stylized acting: (1) the elegant, (2) the energetic, (3) the grand, and (4) the verbal. The last one is presumably almost identical to the Western spoken theater. The facial muscles, eyes, eyebrows, and so forth, are prepared and trained as reliably as the body, hands, and feet. The facial method is key to the demeanor of the rasa temperament, and it could be created to the level where the entertainer can communicate delight with one portion of his face and distress with the other.

Q3. How many types of Natyashastra are there?

The Natyashastra gives four different styles of Natya or stylized acting: (1) the graceful, (2) the energetic, (3) the grand, and (4) the verbal. Natyashastra is a compendium of performing arts, drama, music, and dance i.e. art and fine art. It is also known as the fifth Veda as it has evolved by taking words (recitation) from the Rigveda, music (songs) from the Samaveda, gestures (acting) from the Yajurveda, and emotions (sentiments) from the Atharvaveda.

Q4. Why is Natya Shastra important?

Its many chapters contain detailed treatments of all the diverse arts that are embodied in the classical Indian concept of drama, including dance, music, poetics, and general aesthetics. Its primary importance lies in its justification of Indian drama as a vehicle of religious enlightenment. The Natya Shastra is probably the world's largest and most comprehensive theater and dance manual. The instructions of Natya Shastra became established through centuries of practical theater work. The goal of performance arts, states Natyashastra is ultimately to let the spectator experience his consciousness, then evaluate and feel the spiritual values innate in him, and rise to a higher level of consciousness.

Q5. What is the main thing in Natyashastra?

The main aim has been to aesthetically arouse joy in the spectator, through the medium of the actor's art of communication, which helps connect and transport the individual into a super sensual inner state of being. The nature of the 'Natyaveda' or 'Natya Shastra' was explained by Brahma to pacify the demons. The Natyashastra treats both the good and the evil. Showing that the good is rewarded and the evil is punished. Natyashastra includes all knowledge, craft, art, lore, fine art, design, emotions, and acts of life. Natyashastra is an indication of the happenings in the life of gods, demons, kings, family, men, and sages who have spiritual knowledge.

Q6. What are the four aspects of drama according to the Natyashastra?

The text describes four means of communication between the actors and the audience – words, gestures, dresses, and aharya (make-ups, cosmetics), all of which should be harmonious with the temperament envisioned in the drama. The Natyashastra gives four different styles of Natya or stylised acting: (1) the graceful, (2) the energetic, (3) the grand, and (4) the verbal. Aesthetically, Sanskrit theater mixed-dancing, music, spoken (song, poetry, prose), and gestures into an intricate form of performance. The plot was maintained by dialogue, more than action, and that dialogue was generally written with all the poetic flair, flourishing, and ornamentation available.

Q7. Why was Natyashastra created?

Natyashastra is the earliest literature on music and drama – written around 500 BC by Bharata Muni. Comprising 6000 couplets in Sanskrit and thirty-six chapters, Natyashastra’s focus was on dance and drama, with music as an aid. The title is a combination of – Natya and Shastra. Natya refers to the technique of dance and drama, and shastra refers to science. It describes – the relation between director and audience, structuring a play, acting techniques, costumes and make-up, music and musical instruments to be used, the dimensions of the stage and its decorations with lighting, and the size of the hall and seating of the audience. Directors and producers of plays mention that its relevance is high even in this date and age.

Q8. Who discovered Natyashastra?

Natyashastra is a detailed treatise and handbook on dramatic art that deals with all aspects of classical Sanskrit theater. It is believed to be written by Brahman sage Bharata, considered the father of Indian theatrical art forms. It has largely influenced dance, music, and literary traditions in India. The composition date of Natyashastra is unknown, estimates vary between 500 BCE to 500 CE. The origin of the book is thus shrouded in mythology, but the work itself is indeed a living reality. The Natyashastra is probably the world’s largest and most comprehensive theater and dance manual, and it still forms the foundation of the classical forms of theater and dance in India.