The music of the Indian subcontinent is generally separated into two significant practices of classical music: Hindustani music of North India and Karnatak music of South India, albeit numerous locales of India additionally have their melodic customs that are autonomous of these. The two Hindustani and Karnatak music utilize the arrangement of ragas — sets of pitches and little thought processes in song development — and tala for mood.
One of the fundamental distinctions between North Indian and South Indian music is the expanded impact of Persian music and instruments in the north. The music of North India started to obtain and adjust to the presence of the Persian language, music, and instruments, for example, the setar, from which the sitar got its name; the kamanche and santur, which became famous in Kashmir; and the rabab, which was succeeded by the sarod. New instruments came up fast, including the tabla and sitar, which before long turned into the most popular Indian instruments around the world. Rumors from far and wide suggest that the tabla was framed by parting a pakhavaj drum down the middle, with the bigger side turning into the bayan and the more modest side the dahini.
Hindustani music is known to a great extent for its instrumentalists, while Karnatak traditional music is eminent for its virtuosic singing practices. Instruments most regularly utilized in Hindustani traditional music are the sitar, sarod, tambura, shehnai, sarangi, and tabla; while instruments normally utilized in Karnatak music incorporate the vina, mrdangam, kanjira, and violin. The utilization of bamboo woodwinds, for example, the murali, is normal to the two customs as well as numerous different sorts of Indian music. Truth be told, a significant number of these instruments are much of the time utilized in both North and South India, and there are many clear connections between the instruments of the two areas. Some of the lesser-known Indian instruments are-
The kanjira is a casing drum from South India. It comprises of a skin extended and glued on a round wooden casing. There are three or four openings on the side of the edge, in which bell metal jingle-plates are suspended from metal crossbars.
The kamanche is one of the world's earliest known bowed instruments. It has been modified and changed as it has made a trip to different areas of the planet.
The murali is a crossover woodwind made of bamboo. It is utilized in an assortment of melodic genres and is frequently connected with the Hindu god Krishna.
The sarod is a culled stringed instrument with a skin-shrouded resonator and melodic strings. Like the sitar, it is essentially utilized in Hindustani music and is joined by the tabla.
Q1. What are the different types of Indian musical instruments?
Over thousands of years, the inhabitants of India have fostered various frameworks for characterizing instruments, large numbers of which depended on morphological attributes. The old Hindu framework partitioned instruments into four classifications: extended (strings), covered (drums), hollow (wind), and solid (bells).
Q2. Which is India’s oldest musical instrument?
The most seasoned instrument of India, the Veena, represents the Indian ethos all through the nation and has humanistic and social meanings. Saraswati, the Goddess of learning, is envisioned as Veenapani, the wielder of a Veena. The vina has taken many structures in both South and North India. In North India, it was known as the Rudra vina and was the ancestor of the sitar. It was frequently worked on two enormous gourd resonators linked by a piece of bamboo, with frets fixed on with wax. A large portion of the vinas portrayed in iconography is rudravinas. In the South, the vina — or Saraswati vina — is still the most famous stringed instrument in Indian classical music.
Q3. What instruments are
usually used in Indian music?
>> Sitar, Sarod, Sarangi, Bansuri,
Shehnai, Tabla, Pakhawaj.
>> Tanpura – A drone
>> Veena, Sitar, Sarod- Nakhaj Vadya: played by using nails
>> Sarangi, Violin- Vitat
Vadya: played with a bow
>> Santoor- a string
instrument played by a spoon-shaped hammer, not by a bow.
>> Shankh, Bansuri, Shehnai,
and Harmonium- are Sushir Vadya or Aerophones.
>> Mridangam, Khanjira,
Pakhawaj, Tabla, Chaughada, Dhol - Avanadh or Charmaj Vadya. Also called Membrophone
or Drums Instruments. It contains a layer of animal skin.
>> Ghatam, Morsing, Manjira,
Kartaal - Ghana Vadya or Idiophone.
These instruments are made of metal, clay, or wood.
Electronic-Tabla, and Electronic-Tanpura they all are included in the category
of Electronic instruments.
Q4. What is unique about
music is produced life, on the spot, feeding off the energy from the listeners
as well as the energy on stage. Because of its organic roots, the alignment of the
ragas with the time of day, and its association with a gamut of emotions or
“rasas”, Indian music sets the stage for spiritual and physical healing. This
has now been scientifically confirmed that ragas indeed evoke a gamut of
responses ranging from 'happy' and 'calm' to 'tensed' and 'sad' among
listeners. Indian classical music is characterized by intricate and subtle
melodies and complex rhythms. To a novice listener, it might seem overwhelming,
but knowing the basics would force him to appreciate the art form's spectacular
richness. This is its uniqueness.
Q5. How many types of musical
instruments are there in India?
Indian musical instruments can be broadly classified
according to the Hornbostel–Sachs system into four categories: chordophones
(string instruments), aerophones (wind instruments), membranophones (drums),
and idiophones (non-drum percussion instruments). Instruments most commonly
used in Hindustani classical music are the sitar, sarod, tambura, shehnai,
sarangi, and tabla; while instruments commonly used in Carnatic classical music
include the vina, mridangam, kanjira, and violin & also Electrophones, such
as Synthesizers, Electronic-Tabla, and Electronic-Tanpura.
Q6. What are the 5
classifications of musical instruments of India?
There are predominantly 5 types of Indian Musical
instruments. There is a traditional system for the classification of instruments.
This system is based upon; non-membranous percussion (ghan), membranous
percussion (avanaddh), windblown (sushir), plucked string (tat), and bowed
Instruments of India : Mridangam, Sitar (string), Sarod, Tabla (percussion),
Harmonium (free-real keyboard), Tanpura, Vina, Shehnai, Sarangi, etc. The
musical instruments of India are a colorful, diverse, and rich world that
reflects hundreds of years of tradition and culture. Whether the northern or
southern traditions of India, every musical instrument has a unique part in the
Indian traditions and events. Their authentic and meaningful voices have been
echoing for centuries and hopefully will be alive for more.
Q7. Which is the oldest
musical instrument in India?
The veena is the oldest Indian musical instrument,
according to Vedic texts dating as far back as 1000 BCE. Saraswati, the Goddess
of learning, is visualized as Veenapani, the wielder of a Veena. The Veena
symbolizes the Indian ethos and has sociological and cultural connotations. The
instrument, which is typically played with the musician sitting on the ground,
is seen in Hindu carvings. Temple sculptures from the 2nd century B.C. show a
type of veena being played. The Saraswati veena is the predominant Carnatic
music and the Rudra veena is the most played veena in Hindustani music. The
mythology states that this instrument was created by the god Shiva It may be a
post-6th century medieval era invention.
Q8. Which is the national
instrument of India?
Saraswati veena (vina) is the national instrument
(music) of India. Also known as Raghunathan veena, it is used mostly in
Carnatic Indian classical music. The veena is a large plucked lute and one of
India's oldest instruments with a recorded history going back to about 1500 BC.
Saraswati veena is different from the North Indian Rudra veena. Around the time
of independence, it was glorified and became the country’s national instrument.
Yet, despite all the superlatives attributed to it, it has faced a steady decline,
with a meager presence on the concert stage and festival circuits. Over the
years, even the most famed music festivals in the country have had a pitiable
number of solo veena recitals.
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