Q1. Which is the most important
following shloka enumerates the top ten
ईश केन कठा प्रश्न मुण्ड माण्डूक्य तैत्तिरी।ऐतरेयं च छान्दोग्यं बृहदारण्यकं दशम्॥
Isha - shukla yajur veda (40th chapter
of vAjasaneyi samhitA)
Kena - sAma veda (last section of
Katha - Krishna yajur Veda (ending
chapters of kathaka brahmana)
Prashna - Atharva Veda (paippalAda Samhita)
Mundaka - Atharva Veda (uncertain of
mANDUkya - Atharva Veda (uncertain of
TaittirIya - kRShNa yajur veda (chapters 7–9
of taittirIya AraNyaka)
Aitareya - Rg Veda (chapters 4–6 of
chAndogya - sAma veda (AraNyakam of tANDya
bRihadAraNyaka - shukla yajur veda (AraNyakam of
than these, two more are considered ancient and authoritative:
kauShItaki - Rg veda (embedded in the
shvetAshvatara - (associated with Krishna yajur
Q2. Why Upanishads are called
The word Vedanta is
made of two words
Veda (वेद) - refers to the four sacred Vedic texts.
Anta (अंत) - this word means "End".
The word Vedanta means the
end of the Vedas and originally referred to the Upanishads.
Vedanta is concerned with the jñānakāṇḍa or knowledge section of the Vedas
which is called the Upanishads. The denotation of Vedanta subsequently widened
to include the various philosophical traditions based on the Prasthana Traya.
The Upanishads may
be regarded as the end of Vedas in different senses
1. These were the last literary products of the
2. These mark the culmination of Vedic thought.
3. These were taught and debated last, in the
Brahmacharya (student) stage.
are 108 Upanishads?
The Upanishadic texts are part of the Shruti literature and are
considered to be divine in origin.
They are associated with the names of several ancient seers.
Atmabodha, Kaushitaki, Mudgala, Nirvana, etc.
(16) : Kena, Chandogya, Mahat, Maitrayani, Savitri, Maitreyi,
: (50): Katha, Taittiriya, Isavasya , Brihadaranyaka ,
Akshi, Ekakshara, Garbha Brahma,
(32) : Prasna, Mandukya, Mundaka, Atma, Surya, Narada-Parivrajaka,
Parabrahma, Paramahamsa-Parivrajakas, Pasupatha-Brahma, Mahavakya, Sandilya,
Krishna, Garuda , Dattatreya Atharvasira, etc
Q4. Are 108 Upanishads available?
names of 108 Upanishads are given in the Muktika Upanishad. The Rig Veda
contains 10, Samaveda 16, Shukla Yajurveda 19, Krishna Yajurveda 31, and
Atharvaveda 32 Upanishads.
some scholars, there are about 350 Upanishads, but only 108 of them are
considered authoritative. In Rig Veda, there were 21. Visnu Purana mentions the
number of Shaakaas to be 1180; another scholar says there were 1133 shakhas.
5000 years or more since Veda Vyasa, many Saakhaas have been lost. Out of 1180,
we are in the unfortunate position of only six or seven.
Q5. What is Upanishads 9?
9- अन्धन्तमः प्रविशन्ति येऽविद्यामुपासते । ततो भूय इव ते तमोय उ विद्यायां रताः ॥ ९ ॥
who worship Avidya alone fall into blind darkness, and they who worship Vidya
alone fall into even greater darkness.
first purport of the Vedas, the acquisition of knowledge of the Brahman by
renunciation of all desires has been explained in the first mantra Isavasyam,
etc. This text “Andhantamah,” etc., is addressed to those who desire to live
here continually performing Karma. They enter into blind darkness and follow
Avidya. Avidya is something other than
Vidya or knowledge, like Karma; for Karma is opposed to knowledge. And they
fall even into greater darkness.
Q6. Who wrote all Upanishads?
the Upanishads are ascribed to the four Vedas, the authorship of most
Upanishads is unknown. Radhakrishnan states, "almost all the early
literature of India was anonymous, we do not know the names of the authors of
the Upanishads" The major Upanishads in their current form seem to have
originated from various ancient Vedic schools (shakhas) and teacher traditions.
There is no definite answer to this question.
various philosophical theories in the early Upanishads have been attributed to
famous sages such as Yajnavalkya, Uddalaka Aruni, Svetaketu, Shandilya,
Aitareya, Balaki, Pippalada, and Sanatkumara. Women, such as Maitreyi and
Gargi, participate in the dialogues and are also credited in the early
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