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Item Code: IDF396
Author: Translated By: Translated By: Dr. Priyabala Shah
Publisher: Parimal Publication Pvt. Ltd.
Language: English Translation
Edition: 2005
ISBN: 9788171101719
Pages: 1429
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details: 8.7" X 5.7
weight of book 1.980 kg

From the Jacket:

The Visnudharmottara Purana is an encyclopedic work of three khandas and dealing not only with various stories, myths and legends but also with varied subjects, viz. cosmology and cosmogony, division of time, pacification of unfavourable planets and stars, omens and portents, genealogies, manners and customs, penances, results of actions, rules about vrata and Sraddha, description and praise of various kinds of donations law and politics, science of war, anatomy, medicine etc.

This work is divided in three khandas according to their subjects. First khanda is related with the pauranika legends and rebirths. The second khanda deals in pauranika ritualism. This is avowedly a Vaisnava work claiming to deal with various duties on the Vaisnavas. It recommends the Pancaratra method of Visnu worship, adds great importance to the due observance of 'Panca-kala'; holds the scriptures of the Panacaratra in high esteem and extols one who honours or makes gifts to those who are versed in these scriptures.

The third Khanda deals with architecture, sculpture, painting, dancing and music, the basic topics of Fine Arts in a very comprehensive and systematic way that one can call it a complete treatise on the Fine Arts of ancient India.

About the Author:

Dr. Priyabala Shah is a well known scholar of Sanskrit and specialised in Ancient Indian Art and Sculpture. Her dedicated academic pursuit is responsible for this publication. Besides it she has published many important works on architecture, sculpture, iconography etc.




The text of the Vishnudharmottara published by the Venkates vara Press, Bombay in Samvat 1909 (i.e. A.D. 1913). This Vishnudha mottara is divided into three Khandas.

This work is a translation of the first Khanda of the Vishnud harmottara. It begins with the well-known verse -

"Narayana Namaskrtya Naram Chaiva Narottam am , Devim Sarasvatim Vyasah tato Jayamudirayet", This (first) Khanda, which contains 269 Adhyayas, very much resembles the first Khandas of other Puranas. It narrates the creation or rather the successive creations of the world, gives the usual Pauranic accounts of geography, astronomy and time, numerous geneologies and legends and some stotras, as well as rules regarding certain vratas, the Sraddhas and the pacification of planets and constellations in details. Among the legends, along with account of the loves of Pururavas and Uravashi, which fills Adhyayas 130-137, deserves to be mentioned, as it comes a little closer to Kalidasa's story than the other known versions. Moreover, some leg ends throw light upon the rebirths due to their Karmas. e.g. story of the transformation of the Gandharvas Haha and Huhu into an elephant and a crocodile respectively as a result of Devala's curse. Rama's order to Bharat to chastise the impious Gandharvas living on both banks of Sindhu. The story of Ravana, and his exploits, his meeting with Vishnu who told him that he would be born as a human being and kill Ravana. Thus this Khanda widely utilises the Ramayana and incorporates a large number of verses from the Mahabharata, the Bhagvadgita and the Upanisads. There is no exaggeration in saying that this Vishnudharm tara is an encyclopaedic work discussing so many different topi Moreover this work narrates the birth and rebirth according to on actions (Karma).

I am regretfully aware of the fact that inspite of best care a few mistakes crept into this work. I crave indulgence of the scholars for these lapses.

My heart-felt thanks to Dr. I. J. Bhatt, Shrimati Prof. Kunjalata Ghodadra and Shri Ronak H. Joshi. I thank Shri Babubhai, Shri Parshva Publication, Ahmedabad, for the prompt publication of this work.



(1) The Vishnudharmottara is an encyclopedic work consisting of three Khandas and dealing not only with various stories, myths and legends but also with varied subjects, viz., cosmology and cosmogony, geography, astronomy and astrology, division of time, pacification of unfavourable planets and stars, omens and portents, genealogies (mainly of kings and sages), manners and customs, penances, results of actions, rules about vrata and sraddha, description and praise of various kinds of donations law and politics, science of war, anatomy, medicine, treatment of diseases' of human beings and lower animals, cookery, manufacture of perfumes, horticulture, grammar, lexicography, metrics, rhetorics, dramaturgy, danc- ing, vocal and instrumental music, sculpture, painting, architecture, vais- nava theology and so on.

The Vishnudharmottara is avowedly a Vaishnava work claiming to deal with 'various duties of the Vaishnavas'. It belongs to the Pancaratras and is not a production of the Bhagavat sect as Buhler (1) takes it to be. It recommands the Pancaratra method of Vishnu worship, adds great importance to the due observance of 'panca-kala', holds the scriptures of the Panca-ratras in high esteem and extols one who honours or makes gifts to, those who are versed in these scriptures. According to the Vishnudharmottara, Narayana (2) is the highest deity and Supreme Brahma (param Brahma). He is the original source of both matter and spirit. For the sake of creation he takes to gunas and appears as Brahma, Vishnu and Hara. Vishnu who carries on the work of protection with the help of Lakshmi, exists in different parts of the universe by assuming different forms through Maya. In the world of mortals he resides with Lakshmi in Svetadvipa, which is said to be situated in the ocean of milk lying on the east of the mountain Meru. The Vishnudharmottara calls Narayana 'Caturatman' and believes in the doctrine of Vyuha as expounded in the Panchratra samhitas. It states that by persistently worshiping Vishnu with absolute devotion (ekanta-bhava) according to the Panchratra method, one can pass to Svetadvipa after death, reside there for long in a divine form, and then attain final emanci- pation by entering Vasudeva after passing successively through the Sun (aditya-mandalam), Brahma, Aniruddha, Padrumna and Samkarshana. It lays special stress on image worship. (1 and recom- mends to the Vishnu-Worshippers both the vedic mantras (viz. Savitri etc.) and the sectarian ones (,Om namo narayanaya' and 'Om namo bhagvate Vasudevaya' of eight and twelve syllables respec- tively) but says that women and shudras are allowed to use the latter mantras only. (2) As it regards Vishnu as 'Sarva-devamaya' and 'Sarvarupadhara, (3) it recommands the vows and worship of other deities also and thereby tries to infuse the worshippers of these deities with Vaishnava ideas. It looks Krsna as one of the manifestations of Vishnu and seems to add little importance to cow heard krsna (of vrndavana), who is mentioned very briefly on two occasions only. (4) It adds special importance to the Pasupatas, whose scriptures it mentions along with those of the Pancaratras in more places than one, (5) but it subordinates Sankara to Narayana. So it seems that the Pancaratras had the Pasupatas as their most powerful rivals.

The Vishnudharmottara is practically free from Tantric in- fluence. It advises the Vaishnavas to worship Vishnu and other deities in images, pictures, altars, Pitchers (full of water), or lotuses (drawn on the ground) (6) and recommends the use 'of vedic or Puranic Mantras or both in vows and worship. But it, does not recognise the Tantric 'Yantra' as a medium of worship, nor does it prescribe the use of Tantric mantras. The Tantric bijas, found in some of the stotras and kavacas contained in the Vishnudharmottara, (7) are most probably due to the influence of the Pancaratra Samhitas, which Vishnudharmottara follows in form and ideas.

Although the Vishnudharmottara decries the Pashandas as extremely unnoly and detestable, it seems to have been influenced by Buddhism. It recommends the worship of Aiduka, Dharma and Vyoman and describes their images. (8) By its recognition of Mayura (9 , Hamsa (10) etc. as manifestations of Vishnu and by its statement that whenever there is decline of dharma, Vasudeva is born, accord- ing to necessity, among gods, men, Gandharvas, serpents, birds or others and behaves like those creatures among whom he is born (11), the Vishnudharmottara reminds us of the Jataka stories.

The Vishnudharmottara is written mostly in verse but some of its chapters or parts thereof, are written in Prose (12) Regarding the language of this work it may be said that like many other Puranas it contains a number of ungrammatical forms. For instace, it has 'vartata' for 'vartamanena' (11.14), 'Yatrasthani' for 'Yatra tisthan- tam (1.4.38), 'tatrastham' for tatra tisthantam (1.6.58 and 61), 'Sand- hyasaha' for 'Sandhyaya Saha', (1.26.8) 'Prathame' for 'Prathamam' (l 139.1) 'duhitam' for duhitaram' (I 252.8), 'Patnayah' for 'patnyah' (III 67.15 a and III 103.21) and so on.

Now we see in some passages, the mention of the river Taushi i. e. the modern Tohi, sacred lake Bindusaras &c. show an intimate acquaintance with the geography of Kashmir, and make it probable that the book has been written or received its present shape in Kashmir. The whole is stated to have been communicated by the Rishi Markandeya to king Vajra, a son of Aniruddha and the great grandson of Krishna and a contemporary of Parikshit. As is usual in this calss of works, there are, however a good many other interlocu- tors. The language shows the slipshod Sanskrit, common to all puranas and the author does not shrink from coining the most absurd forms, when they suit his convenience.




Most of the Puranas and Upapuranas narrate the subject - matter of various arts such as Town-planning, Architecture Sculpture, Painting, Music, Dance and similar other topics. But only eight.' of them have treated the subject more systematically and in greater detail.

None of these, however, have treated the topics of fine arts in the way in which the third khanda of Visnudharmottara has done. The treatment is comprehensive and systematic, so that one can call it a treatise of the fine arts of Ancient India. Moreover, it throws a flood of light on various symbols used in the ancient arts. These important descriptions serve as a reliable guide to the study parts of the tradition of fine arts in Ancient India.

In spite of this importance, the Visnudharmottara has not attracted the attention it deserves. The text of Visnudharmottara was first published by Venkatesvara Press, Bombay, in Samvat 1969 (i.e. A.D. 1913). Dr. Stella Kramrisch, Professor of Fine Arts in Calcutta University was probably the first one to draw attention to the importance of this work. She published an English translation of the portion pertaining to Painting in 1924.

A study of the printed text of the Visnudharmottara published by the Venkatesvara Press shows that many of its readings are corrupt and unintelligible and therefore the necessity of an attempt to prepare, as far as possib1e, a critical and reliable edition of this portion with the help of available manuscripts. so as to serve as a reliable source for understanding arts in Ancient India.


Origin of Image-making and Temple-building and Interdependence of Arts

(1) Origin of image-making: As noted in the introduction (p. xi) the importance of Khanda III of Visnudharmottara lies in the incorporation of traditions regarding arts as they were practised in Ancient India. This information makes it a good work on Arts in interesting way. The subject of fine arts is introduced as an important subject of study. It is related to the primary urge of man seeking happiness here and hereafter and avoid pain. The whole work is a dialogue of the ruler Vajra and the Sage Markandeya. The questions are raised by the ruler and answers are provided by the sage. They constitute the text in the tradition of Mahabharata, Puranas, Kathasaritsagara, Panctantra and such type of literature.

King Vajra puts the question: 'What would obtain for him, great happiness in this and the other world (Ad. 1, Slo. I)? Without hesitation Markandeya answers the question: 'Anyone desiring the best of the two worlds must worship gods (Devata pnjanam). Then he dilates upon it. There are two ways of worship, one 'Antravedi', the other 'Bahirvedi'. The first is concerned with the sacrificial cult, the other with vows of abstinence, fasting etc. 'All those heavens which are attained by sacrificial acts (ista) and charitable deeds (apurta), if desired can be obtained by building a temple for gods.' The merit of Ista and apurta is to be found in the single act.

Markandeya then emphasizes the importance of building temples, particularly in the Kali age. "In the former three ages Krta, Treta and Dvapara men were able to see a god directly but in the Kali age men have lost that faculty; therefore they have to worship them (gods) in an image. (V.D. III Ad. 93 slos. 1 to 6).

Even in former ages when a god was visible, men used to worship him in a particular image. So a man of learning should worship a well-formed (surupa) images because it is to such an image that a deity becomes proximate. Anyway he must avoid an image uncanonically made.

An image of divinity has to be installed in a temple and so temple-building itself becomes a meritorious act. So Markandeya declares:

"To built a temple is meritorious; so is the making of an image of a deity. Meritorious is the worship of a divine image and so is its adoration. (V.D. Ad. 1 Sio. 11)

Thus the social motive of seeking happiness here and the religious motive of hereafter or rather the religious motive of seeking happiness here and hereafter becomes a motive force in the development of the arts of image-making and temple-building. in other words, of Sculpture and Architecture. This tradition is amply corroborated by the monumental remains and history of architecture and sculpture in India.

Another part of this tradition leads to some historical speculation. The statement that there was not much of image- making and temple-building in Krta, Dvapara and Treta ages, might suggest a belief of the Rsis like Markandeya that image- worship did not prevail in earlier times. This would accord well as far as the earlier Vedic cult of sacrifice is concerned. In fact this is the Antarvedi worship. The image worship, temple building, etc., are the method of Bahirvedic worship, which is comparatively easy to practise with its festivals anti other aspects; it is a socio- religious activity with great attraction. This activity deals with an interdependence of various arts of literature music, painting, sculpture, architecture, etc.




  Preface iii
1. The Vishnudharmottara xiii
2. The Vishnudharmottara, Vishnupurana and Vishnudharma. xvi
3. The provenance of the Vishnudharmottara. xix
4. Age of Vishnudharmottara. xx
5. Authorship xxv
  Text Chapter  
1. Katha Prastavana. 1
2. Hiranya Garbha or Golden Egg. 3
3. The coming up of the Varaha Avatara. 5
4. Patal Varnana. 6
5. The description of the Lokas 10
6. Dwipa- Vibhaga Varnanam 13
7. Jamboo Dwipa Varnanam 17
8. Bharata Varsha Varnanam 21
9. Janapada Varnanam 22
10. The description of rivers springing from seven mountains 23
11. The description of the rivers of Himavana 24
12. The description of Koshal 26
13. Description of Ayodhya 27
14. Dynasty of Ikshvaku 28
15. The death of Madhu and Kaitabha 29
16. The Slaughter of Dhundhu 31
17. The episode of Sagara 32
18. The Sub-story of the Sagaras 34
19. The Descendant of river Ganga 36
20. The narration of the Janhu's daughter 37
21. The incidence of Trivikram 38
22. The perversion of Ganga 40
23. An episode of Sahasrarjuna 42
24. The Killing of Vrtrasura 44
25. The episode of Dattatreya 45
26. The departure of the earth to Indraloka 46
27. Going to Brahmaloka 48
28. Hara Darshan 49
29. Chandra Mandala Darshan 51
30. Aditya Darshan 53
31. The Forest Conflagration 54
32. The creation of Vadvagni 56
33. The exchange of Rice Pots 57
34. Giving the boon to Kushika 58
35. The Birth of Rama 60
36. The order of Maheshwara to Rama 61
37. Calamity 63
38. The dialogue between Shukra and Salva 64
39. Dream 66
40. The existence of Laxmi 67
41. Amrta-Manthan 70
42. The Distribution of nectar 73
43. The description of the battle between gods and demons 76
44. The words of Salva 78
45. The marching of Salva 80.
46. The bad omens by the army of Salva 81
47. The Sight of Bhargava Rama in the battle 82
48. The killing of the army of Salva 83
49. The killing of Salva 85
50. Giving of Missiles 86
51. The question of Rama in Shankar-Gita 87
52. The instruction for Mediation 88
53. The Killing of Hiranyaksha 90
54. The Advent of Nrsimha Incarnation 93
55. The Advent of Vamana 96
56. The Description of divine power 99
57. The result of devotion 102
58. The Characteristics of Devotion 104
59. The result of worshipping 107
60. The rite of fasting 108
61. The time of approaching in Shankara-Gita 110
62. Bringing the things for offering to the god 112
63. The procedure for the time of Sacrifice 113
64. Telling the time of self-study 117
65. The completion of Shankara-Gita 117
66. The orders of Shankara to Rama 121
67. The advent of Vishnu's bow 122
68. The sight of the stone-city by Rama 125
69. Seeing Varuna etc. 126
70. The Killing of Ayah-Shanku 127
71. The prayer of Parashuram to Varuna 129
72. The description of the month of the Sun etc. 130
73. The description of the number of time 132
74. The description of the end of a Yuga 135
75. Description of Manvantar 138
76. The description of the end of a Kalpa 139
77. The description of Mahakalpa 140
78. The narration of the dignity of the child 141
79. The Episode of Lotus navelled God Vishnu 142
80. Description of passed time 144
81. The similarities of Kalpas 145
82. The narration of the result of years 147
83. The description of exalted account of deities 150
84. The description of Six Lagna 155
85. Description regarding auspicious and unauspicious knowledge 156
86. The description of damage to every territory 161
87. Auspicious and unauspicious effects of every human being 162
88 Instructions about the circular orb for planets and constellations 164
89. Bath regarding to a particular constellation 165
90. Planets and Constellations 166
91. The method of baths for planets and constellations 167
92. The methods to be performed for all Sacrificial fire 169
93. The method of worshiping planets and constellations 174
94. The arrangement of a circular orb 176
95. The Vehicles and Chants of Planets and Constellations 179
96. Narration of anointing 187
97. Offering of particular flowers to planets and constellatins 188
98. The perfumed vapour and light offering for planets and constellations 189
99. The proper and improper method of offering oblations to planets and constellations 190
100. Just and unjust drink for every planet as well as constellation 193
101. Division of sacrificial oblations 194
102. The sacrificial chants 195
103. The gift describing chapter 197
104. The amulet chain for blessings 198
105. The result for the propitiation manner for planets 199
106. The origin of planets 200
107. The birth etc. of stars and planets 207
108. The birth of Pruthu 214
109. The coronation ceremony etc. of Pruthu 218
110. The dynasty of Daksha 222
111. The race of Bhrugu 224
112. The family lineage of Angira 227
113. The family race of atri 230
114. The families belonging to Vishvamitra 230
115. The family race of Kashyapa 232
116. The race of Vasistha 233
117. The dynasty of Parashara 234
118. The family of Agastya 236
119. The dynasty of Dharma 237
120. The birth of Aditya 238
121. The race of Diti 239
122. The eulogy of Fire 240
123. The eulogy of Wind 241
124. Looking at lord Narayana 241
125. The killing of kalanemi 242
126. The appearance of Varaha in the lower region 244
127. The birth of Maruts 246
128. The creations of Kashyapa 248
129. The creation of Urvashi 251
130. The dialogue between Uravashi and rambha 253
131. The descend in pleasure garden 255
132. The description of moon rise in the garden 257
133. The union of Urvashi with Purooravas 259
134. The description of the enjoyment of Urvashi 262
135. Puroorava's lamentations 263
136. The origin of three sacred fires 267
137. The attainment of heaven by Purroravas 270
138. The decision about stay in heaven or hell 272
139. The origin of the Sharddha rite 273
140. Explanation about Shraddha 275
141. The interpretations of offering oblations at Sharaddha Ceremony 282
142. The description of Sharddha time 286
143. The discrimination to discern the deserved and unreserved 289
144. Proclaiming Shraddha places 291
145. The description of the Ashoonya Shyana Dvitiya 293
146. The characteristics of the bull 294
147. The setting free of the bull 298
148. The Going of the king of Madra Country to the penance grove 300.
149 The description of the river Iravati 301
150. The description of the mountain Himavan 303
151. The description of the hermitage of the great sage 305
152. The description of the hermitage 309
153. The description of playing in water 312
154. Purooravas sees Atri 315
155. The description of the roopsatra 318
156. The arrival of Purooravas to his own country 321
157. The rite related to the Kingdom 324
158. The description of the Kama dwadashi 326
159. The sacred percept related to the twelfth day in the bright half of months 327
160. The percept related with the twelfth in every dark of the months. 328
161. The euology of the twelfth day united with Shravana 329
162. The exalted merits of Shravana dvadashi 330
163. The euology of Tiladvadashi 335
164. The euology of Tiladvadashi 335
165. The majestic grandeur of Gayatri 338
166. The euology of giving lamps 344
167. The grand power of lamp giving 347
168. The description of bringing flowers 349
169. Narration of the fruit of Aointing 351
170. The episode of Mandhata 352
171. The description of the true nature of Purush 355
172. The description of Lord Vishnu 356
173. The exalted merits of the Ananta Vrata 360
174. The worship related to the constellation and the month 362
175. The deeds of Shakra 363
176. The description of the first Manvatara 364
177. The second age of Manu 365
178. The third age of Manu 365
179. The description of the fourth Manu 367
180. The fifth Manvatara 367
181. The Sixth Chakshush Manvantara 368
182. The Seventh Vaivasvata Manavatara 368
183. The age of eighth Sarvana Manu 369
184. The age of Manu, ninth son of Brahma 370
185. The age of the tenth Manu, the son of Dharma 371
186. The age of the eleventh Manu 371
187. The age of the twelfth Manu, a son of Daksha 372
188. The age of the thirteenth Rauchya Manu 373
189. The fourteenth Bhautya Manu 373
190. Many appearance of Vishnu 374
191. The episode of Shakra and shambarayani 376
192. The grandeur of Euology 377
193. The transformation of both the Gandharvas elephant and crocodile 378
194. The liberation of the chief of Elephant 378
195. The prayer of Vishnu Panjara 384
196. The appease of all the calamities 386
197. The birth of Yakshas 392
198. Heti's dynasty 391
199. The birth of Chyavana 392
200. The dynasty of Praheti 393
201. The race of Shailoosha 394
202. Bharata's departure 395
203. The followers in departure 397
204. The description of Bharata's departure 399
205. The description of the Journey(marching) 402
206. Crossing the Ganga 406
207. Going to Rajagruha 409
208. Bharata's entrance into the Royal Palace 413
209. The War episode 415
210. The excitement of Gandharvas' Assembly 423
211. The roarings of the Gandharvas 425
212. Instructions by Nadayana to Shailoosh 428
213. The grandeur of Agastya 430
214. The description of the Ocean 432
215. God's Journey 434
216. The March of the demons' army 438
217. The killing of the demon Mali 439
218. The entry of the demons into the world under the earth 441
219. Vishravan legend 443
220. The attainment of boons by Ravana 444
221. The victory of Ravan 447
222. The victory over the heaven 452
223. (Incomplete) 454
224. (Missing : the text) 456
225. The burning down : the collection of three cities 456
226. The victory made over the Andhaka 457
227. The remedies for the adverse effects of divine mothers 562
228. The method of worshipping Krittikas 463
229. The greatness of the Akshaya Tritiya 465
230. The Narration of Nadayana to Shailoosh 465
231. The distinguishing marks of planets 468
232. The remedies for annoyance from Planets 472
233. The killing of Mahisha 473
234. The ruin of the sacrifice 475
235. The destruction of sacrifice of Daksha 476
236. The tearing of Kala 478
237. The armour of Vishnu 480.
238. The meeting of Bali and Ravana 483
239. The manifestation of Maha Purusha to Ravana 485
240. Spring in Ayodhya 488
241. Summer in Ayodhya 489
242. Rama's instructions given to Shatrughna 490
243. The description of the Rainy Season 492
244. The description of the autumnal Season 493
245. The description of winter 494
246. The departure of Shatrughna 496
247. The killing Lavana 497
248. The dynasty of Pulaha 499
249. The narration of the kings in each generation 502
250. The coronation of Shakra 503
251. The origin of the elephants 506
252. The origin of the monkeys 508
253. The battle between the elephants and monkeys 510.
254. The sending of the Gandharvas 512
255. The description of the ladies separated from their lovers 514
256. The lovers separated from their beloveds 515
257. The description of the enjoyment at night 516
258. The description of the Gandharva's army 518
259. The journey of the army of Bharata 519.
260. The disordered war 520
261. The description of the duel 525
262. Description of the battle on the third day 535
263. The description of the fourth day war 537
264. War between Bharta and Shailoosh on the fifth day 539
265. Sixth day of the war between Shailoosh and Bharata 540
266. Killing of Shailoosh 541
267. The description of the battlefield 545
268. Lamentations made by the ladies of the gandharvas 548
269. The Union of Shri Ramchandra and Bharata. 552


CHAPTER 1 Rama's going to Puskara's house 1
CHAPTER 2 Rajaprasamsa 2
CHAPTER 3 Conversation between Markandeya and Vajra in the words of Puskara 3
CHAPTER 4 The characteristics of Samvatsarika 4
CHAPTER 5 The characteristics of the Purohita 6
CHAPTER 6 The characteristics of the Minister 7
CHAPTER 7 Characteristics of the Chief Queen 8
CHAPTER 8 Characteristics of Purusa 9
CHAPTER 9 Characteristics of Women 12
CHAPTER 10 Characteristics of Elephants 13
CHAPTER 11 Characteristics of Horses 15
CHAPTER 12 Characteristics of Camara 17
CHAPTER 13 Traits of an Umbrella 17
CHAPTER 14 Traits of Bhadrasana 18
CHAPTER 15 Characteristics of Jewels 19
CHAPTER 16 Characteristics of Bow and Arrow 21
CHAPTER 17 Characteristics of Swords 23
CHAPTER 18 Fixing the time of the Ablution 26
CHAPTER 19 Pacifying Purandara 27
CHAPTER 20 Characteristics of fire 28
CHAPTER 21 The Ceremony of Coronation 29
CHAPTER 22 The mantras of Coronation 32
CHAPTER 23 Description of the reward of places of Pilgrimage 42
CHAPTER 24 Sahaya Sampatti 43
CHAPTER 25 Behaviour of the Subordinates 49
CHAPTER 26 Wealth in the Castle 52
CHAPTER 27 Agadankaradhyaya 57
CHAPTER 28 Rajaraksavarnana 60
CHAPTER 29 Vastuvidyavarnana 63
CHAPTER 30 Description of Vrksayurveda 70
CHAPTER 31 Description of the glory of worship of Gods 72
CHAPTER 32 Description of the greatness of Brahmins 78
CHAPTER 33 Sadhvimahatmya 80
CHAPTER 34 Duties of Women 82
CHAPTER 35 Laying down of the Worship of Gods by Women 86
CHAPTER 36 Savitri Upakhyana-Entrance in forest 91
CHAPTER 37 Savitri Upakhyana 92
CHAPTER 38 Savitri Upakhyana-Obtainment of second boon 98
CHAPTER 39 Savitri Upakhyana- The benefit of the third Boon 99
CHAPTER 40 Savitri Upakhyana 102
CHAPTER 41 Savitri Upakhyana 103
CHAPTER 42 Gomatividya in Gomatimahatmya 104
CHAPTER 43 Treatment of disease of Cows 109
CHAPTER 44 Gavam Santikarma 111
CHAPTER 45 In praise of Horses 114
CHAPTER 46 Treatment of Horses 117
CHAPTER 47 Santikarmavidhana of Horese 119
CHAPTER 48 In praise of Elephants 123
CHAPTER 49 Diagnosis and Treatment of Elephants 124
CHAPTER 50 Ceremony of Appeasement of Elephants 126
CHAPTER 51 Purusa-Prasamsa 133
CHAPTER 52 Balatnatra 134
CHAPTER 53 Description of the Rohini bath that gives Sons 142
CHAPTER 54 The Vow of Saptami for a Son 145
CHAPTER 55 The Astami Vow for a Son 146
CHAPTER 56 Treatment of Male Diseases 147
CHAPTER 57 Satabhisasnanavarnanam 156
CHAPTER 58 Arogyadvitiya 156
CHAPTER 59 Arogya pratipanna 157
CHAPTER 60 Vow of Healthiness 158
CHAPTER 61 Description of Duties of king 159
CHAPTER 62 Care of Women in the Harem 165
CHAPTER 63 Bhojyakalpana 167
CHAPTER 64 Gandhayukti 168
CHAPTER 65 Duties of a king 172
CHAPTER 66 Adhyaya of Purusakara 178
CHAPTER 67 Samavidhi 179
CHAPTER 68 Performing Bheda 180
CHAPTER 69 Danavidhi 181
CHAPTER 70 In Praise of Danda 182
CHAPTER 71 Rama Vakyadhyaya 184
CHAPTER 72 Levying of Punishment 185
CHAPTER 73 Prayascitta 200
CHAPTER 74 Rahasya Prayascitta 218
CHAPTER 75 Saucavidhi 220
CHAPTER 76 Pretanirharana 222
CHAPTER 77 Preta-Kriya 224
CHAPTER 78 Consolation of Relatives 225
CHAPTER 79 Dravyasuddhi 228
CHAPTER 80 Varanadharma 230
CHAPTER 81 Sankara-Dharma 231
CHAPTER 82 Apad-Dharma 233
CHAPTER 83 Description of the Purvasadhasana 235
CHAPTER 84 Mula-Snanavarnana 236
CHAPTER 85 Description of Samskaras 237
CHAPTER 86 Description of Student-hood 240
CHAPTER 87 Dharmavarnana 242
CHAPTER 88 Snana-Varnana 245
CHAPTER 89 Acara 248
CHAPTER 90 Devakarma 255
CHAPTER 91 Narration of what is to be offered and what not 256
CHAPTER 92 Vaisvadeva Kathanam 258
CHAPTER 93 Bhojanavidhi 262
CHAPTER 94 Acarakathanam 264
CHAPTER 95 Description of the duties of the house-holder 265
CHAPTER 96 Description of the bath in Krttika 268
CHAPTER 97 Description of the rite of Satrunasa 269
CHAPTER 98 Sadharana Snanavarnana 269
CHAPTER 99 Naksatra-Snana-Kathana 270
CHAPTER 100 Abhijit Snana 277
CHAPTER 101 Pustikaraka-Sravana-Snana 278
CHAPTER 102 Janmarksasnana Varnana 279
CHAPTER 103 Barhaspatya-Snana-Varnana 280
CHAPTER 104 Dikpala-Snana Varnana 283
CHAPTER 105 Vinayaka-Snana Varnana 293
CHAPTER 106 Mahesvara-Snana Varnana 295
CHAPTER 107 Nanavidha-Snana Varnana 296
CHAPTER 108 Purushottama Padodaka-Snana 298
CHAPTER 109 Mani-Bandha Varnana 301
CHAPTER 110 Bhagavadanulepana Snana-Varnana 307
CHAPTER 111 Papa-Niscayonama 311
CHAPTER 112 Garbha-Sankranti-Varnana 313
CHAPTER 113 Bhoga-Deha Varnana 313
CHAPTER 114 Sambhava Varnana 316
CHAPTER 115 Sarira-Visaya Varnana 318
CHAPTER 116 Yama-Marga-Varnana 326
CHAPTER 117 Svarga Bhagvarnana 330
CHAPTER 118 Niraya-Gami-Varnana 332
CHAPTER 119 Naraka Yatana Varnana 335
CHAPTER 120 Tiryaga-Yoni-Varnana 339
CHAPTER 121 Naraki-Cihna-Varnana 342
CHAPTER 122 Durgatitarana 344
CHAPTER 123 Krcchraprayascitta Varnana 347
CHAPTER 124 Rgvidhanam 354
CHAPTER 125 Tantra-Vidhana 367
CHAPTER 126 Sama -Vidhi-Kathana 381
CHAPTER 127 The Rituals of the Atharva 387
CHAPTER 128 The magnanimity of Srisukta 391
CHAPTER 129 The magnanimity of Purusasukta 393
CHAPTER 130 Vanaprasthasrama Narrated to Rama 394
CHAPTER 131 The description of the fourth Asrama 397
CHAPTER 132 The description of Santikarma 403
CHAPTER 133 The description of the rituals of Santikarma 406
CHAPTER 134 The description of various calamities 409
CHAPTER 135 The description of pacifying the perversions in the worship 411
CHAPTER 136 The description of fire causing troubles 413
CHAPTER 137 The description of the deformity of the trees binging calamities 414
CHAPTER 138 The description of rain causing calamities 415
CHAPTER 139 The description of the perversion of the reservoirs of water 416
CHAPTER 140 The description of the deformed deliveries of women 417
CHAPTER 141 The description of pacifying the incomplete ones 417
CHAPTER 142 The description of the deformities of the instruments 418
CHAPTER 143 The description of the deformities of the animals and birds causing calamities 419
CHAPTER 144 The pacifying of the calamities 420
CHAPTER 145 The description of the regions provinces of the kingdom 422
CHAPTER 146 The description of the giving Punishment 424
CHAPTER 147 The description of disregard 425
CHAPTER 148 The description of calamities 426
CHAPTER 149 The description of jugglery 427
CHAPTER 150 The description of six qualities 427
CHAPTER 151 Duties occurring everyday 428
CHAPTER 152 The description of the duties during the year 432
CHAPTER 153 The description of the procedure of four months 433
CHAPTER 154 The description of the Flag of Indra 434
CHAPTER 155 The description of the festival of the flag of Sakra 436
CHAPTER 156 The description of the pacifying symptoms of Indra-Dhvaja 438
CHAPTER 157 The description of the praise of Indra 439
CHAPTER 158 The worship of Bhadrakali 442
CHAPTER 159 The description of the Santi called Nirajana 443
CHAPTER 160 The description of the chapter on mantras 447
CHAPTER 161 The description of Dhrta-Kambala Santi 450
CHAPTER 162 Samvatsarabhisekadhyaya 453
CHAPTER 163 The description of the omens at the time of marching 453
CHAPTER 164 The description of omens 456
CHAPTER 165 The occasion of the learning of lucky or unlucky marks on the body 463
CHAPTER 166 The description of the branches of the science in Astronomy 466
CHAPTER 167 The Chapter of Jataka 469
CHAPTER 168 The description of instruments 478
CHAPTER 169 Jyotih-Sastra Grahagati  
CHAPTER 170 The chapter on the lunar date and constellations 491
CHAPTER 171 The chapter about Shadow 494
CHAPTER 172 Lagna-Prakarana 495
CHAPTER 173 The chapter on the rise and setting 495
CHAPTER 174 The doctrine pronamed by the Grand father -Brahma 496
CHAPTER 175 Fitness for travel 499
CHAPTER 176 The procedure of the marching 504
CHAPTER 177 The attitude towards the enemy 509
CHAPTER 178 The description of the Science of Archery 516
CHAPTER 179 The science of archery 518
CHAPTER 180 The science of Archery 520
CHAPTER 181 Dhanurveda-Vidya-Kathana 522
CHAPTER 182 The description of the knowledge of Archery 524
CHAPTER 183 Dhanurveda Vahana-Sajjikarana 526
  Introduction 1-20
  (a) Importance of Visnudharmottara  
  (b) Origin of Image-making, temple-building and the Interdependence of Arts.  
  (c) The work, its age and authorship  
  (d) Visnudharmottara and some of the remain of Ancient Indian Painting and Sculpture.  
  (e) Interpretations of signs and symbols of the deities.  
IAd. 1 (1) Origin of Image making, (2) Interdependence of Arts. 25
II Ad. 2-17 Varieties of Literature. 26-58
  Tantragunadosa, Tantrasuddhi. Literary Arts : Chandas, Alamkaras, Prahelika, Mahakavyalaksana, Dvadasaruppa, Sandhis. Nayikas, Rasa. The endings of the Proper Names, Forms of address.  
III Ad. 18-19 Music: 58-61
  Vocal music, Instrumental Music.  
IV. Ad. 20-34 Nrttasutra: 61-124
  Lying-down postures, sitting postures and seats for different characters, seats, standing postures, Gaits, Gaits expressing sentiments, Movements of Limbs-Head, Neck, Mouth, Chest, Sides, stomach, waist, Thigh, Shank, Foot glances-Rasadrstis. Glances to express sentiments-Movements of Eyelids, Eyeballs, Sight, Eye-brows, Cheeks, Nose, Teeth, Lower lip-Hastabhinaya-Asamyuta Hastas, Samyuta Hastas, Nrttahastas. Mudars-Rahasya Mudra, Significance, Samanya Mudra. Samanyabhinayas. Rasas and Sthayi bhavas, sancaribhavas, Sattvika bhavas. Aharyabhinaya. Rasas-Number of Rasas. The colours of Rasas, Deities of Rasas, Rasas with their Sthayins, Sancari, Sattvika Rasas and their Bhavas. Classification of Rasas.  
V. Ad. 35-43. Citrasutra 124-148
  Origin of Painting, Nrtta and Citra, Measurements, characteristics of Great, men, Postures, The technique of Painting, Plaster, Manibhumis. Instructions-regarding time and ritual of Painting.Chavis of colours of skin based upon Primary colours, mixing of colours, making of pigments.The classification of Painting. Modes of applying Paint, Critical analysis of Citra. Objects usually depicted in Painting, Citra-Rasas. The place of painting in Arts. Marks of Good and bad painting.  
VI. Ad. 44-85 Pratima Laksana 149-197
  Images and their worship, Trimurit, Brahma, Visnu, Mahadeva, Agni, Varuna, Kuber, Yma, Grahas, Aditya, Soma, Kumara, Bahadrakali, Ananata, Tumburu, Mahi, Akasa, Byoman, Sarasvati, Laksmi, Manu, Virupaksa, Vayu, Dharma, Vairagya, Narasimha, Varaha, Hayagriva, Sakra, Padmanabha, The two Nasatyas, Visnudhvaja, Vasu, Naranarayana, Linga, Padma, Visvarupa, Samkarsana, Pradyumna, Anuruddha, Tarksya, Miscellaneous god and goddesses, Aiduka.  
VII Ad. 86-93 Temple-building 198-225
  Material and Sites. Wood, stone, Brick, Vajralepa, Sites. Varieties of Temples-General Characteristics of a temple, Samanyaprasada-laksanam, The hundred temples, Sarvotobhadra, classificaton, Temples and God, Sarvatobhadra and Gods, Benefits of Building a Sarvatobhadra.  
VIII Ad. 94-108 Spiritual Significance of Avahana 225-287
  Vibodhana, Induction of Deities into images.  
IX Ad. 109-118 Rites and rituals 287-299
  Various forms of worship, sacrifice and ceremonies connected with the building of temple and installation of images.(1) Devayatra Vidhi(2) Desire and Deity.  
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