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A Textbook of Rogavijnam and Vikritivijnan (In Two Volumes)

Item Code: IHL074
Publisher: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan
Author: Dr. Rekha N. Jain& Dr. N.Y. Thite
Edition: 2007
Pages: 597 (24 Colors Illustrations
Cover: Paperback
Other Details 8.5 Inch X 5.5 Inch
Weight 1.21 kg
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Book Description
About the Author

Prof. Dr. Rekha N. Jainis formerly head of Department of Pathology and Rognidan at Tilak Ayurveda College Pune she has also been a member of the board of studies at Pune University presently Prof. Jain is working as examiner for Graduate and post Graduate courses in Pune University and is also a research guide to MD and Ph D students in the same University. Prof. Jain has the honor of being guest speaker at institutes and colleges in USA and Mauritius and has also arranged workshops for foreign students.

Dr. Nandkumar Y. Thite graduated in Ayurveda with distinction in pathology & Medicine in 1972 and secured MBBS degree in 1979 both from Pune University Dr. Thite has been teaching the subject Rogavijnan to post graduate students for the last 13 years at Tilak an examiner for Rogavijnan Vikritivijjan subject in Pune University Dr. Thite has participated in many National & International conferences of Ayurveda as well as transfusion Medicine Dr. Thite has been working as medical officer at Indian Red Cross society’s Blood bank for the last 23 years.




The Author's Note

The Science of Ayurveda originated with the need to understand and cure diseases and to maintain health for human being. The correct diagnosis of a disease is essential for curing diseases. Although Ayurveda gained tremendous popularity right from inception, its usage dwindled with the advent of branches of new medicines and treatment. This is however changing now and what was looked purely as an alternative medicine, just a few years ago, is gaining mainstream following by students and doctors; and not only in India but from all over the world. Introducing this medical science and India being the country of its origin, it has attracted a lot of aspiring doctors, and international students community here.

All medical sciences focus on two aspects of disease, which are diagnosis and treatment. Ayurveda too focuses on these aspects and here these are called as "Rogavijnan-Vikriti Vijnan and Chikitsa". But till now they have not been looked at separately. Almost all the books written on Ayurveda have included 'Rogavijnan, Vikritvijnan and Chikitsa in the same book. This is however the first time that an effort has been made to separate these two aspects and looked at each distinctly. Some books in the past have tried to deal with these topics separately but have been limited in their acceptance and scope outside India due to the language barrier.

Looking to filling this gap between the international students and vernacular readers we decided to endeavour on a mission which would help us to shed light on each of these aspects separately, in international language like English and be more internationally acceptable. The text is not a mere literal translation of original Ayurvedic texts into English but an attempt is made to bring out the true essence of Ayurveda. This text book will be an introduction to Ayurveda and Rogavijnan and Vikriti vijnan for all the readers which will include students from abroad who might have science qualification and all who are keen to learn Ayurveda.

This book is therefore designed as a text book for the second year students of B.A.M.S. which comes under the authority of Central Council of Indian Medicine (C.C.I.M.) and recognised by Maharashtra University of Health Sciences (M.U.H.S.).

To do the justice to this mission we needed inputs not only from experts who understand these topics but also had specialised knowledge about 'Rogavijnan Vikritivijnan' and could look at it from the allpatic point of view while researching , analyzing and writing these facts. This is when Dr. Nandkumar Thite and I decided to come together and use his vast experience in allopathy and my own 30 years of experience as Professor, Researchers and Head of the Department of 'Rogavijnyan & Vikritivijnan' in the renounced 'Tilak Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya ' at Pune.

While this idea was even at its budding stage Mr. Pravin Kumar Gupt from Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, Delhi showed an interest and his support in the mission and prompted us to work on and write out this book to publish it.

In this book, we have included description of 'Prakrit' and 'Vikrit' dosha, dhatu, mala according to Ayurveda, as well as the patho-physiology of these three basic elements in the initial chapter.

The subject of "Movements of Dosha" which has got importance in manifestation as well as diagnosis and management of disease is described in detail. The basic pathogenesis of diseases according to Ayurveda is described under the chapter of "Disease contributory factors". In the chapter of 'Systemic Pathology we have tried to explain the concept of 'Srotas' in a simplified manner. 'Agni' and 'Aam' the two specialities of Ayurveda are also made clear in the chapter of "Disease contributory factors". The two unique features of Ayurveda called 'Ojas' the vital essence and 'Vyadhi-kshamatva' or body resistance, are also considered.

The five diagnostic criteria described by 'Ayurveda' as 'Nidanpanchak' are of prime importance in the clinical diagnosis of a disease. These are explained in detail so that students will acquire confidence in this basic subject.

The other criteria regarding diseases such as stages, classifications, complications, death indicating symptoms, prognosis etc. are also covered in a detailed and simple manner. The epidemic and hereditary diseases described in Ayurveda are also included.

Last but not least, the text has explained the various methods of examination of the patient and examination of diseases. How to prepare record of examination of patient is also supplemented in detail. This is also helpful to students for purpose of practical examination.


Introduction to the first Volume

The study of only one science is not sufficient for scientific decision. Hence a physician should have knowledge of many sciences.

Ayurveda the science of life has described the pathology of various diseases i.e. Rogavijnan and Vikritivijnan in the era 2500 B.C. without sophisticated equipments based on physics and chemistry. The subject forms the basis of medicine surgery genecology and obstetrics hence it is essential to know why how and what about the various diseases.

• Why did it happen? (causes)
• How did it happen? (pathogenesis)
• What are alterations produced? (lesions)
• What are signs and symptoms ?
• What is clinical significance? (Course, Prognosis)

Answers to these questions means Rogavijnan and Vikritivijnan.

Ayurveda has described human body as:
i.e. Dosha, Dhatu, Mala are the basis of human body.

What is Dosha?

The meaning of Dosha is defect actually these are three endogenous factors which govern all the body activities right from conception till death. They are not having any defect but as they are able to produce defect in all the body elements including themselves they are called as Dosha they are named as: Vata, Pitta, Kapha.

What is Dhatu?

The meaning of Dhatu is which gives support. The human body is made up of seven body elements or tissues. They are named as Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda, Asthi, Majja and Shukra.

What is Mala?

The meaning of Mala in excretory waste product. During various body processes three waste products are produced which are excerted. They are named as Purisha Mutra and Sveda.

Thus the three endogenous factors or vitia the seven body elements or tissues and the three waste products form the basis of Ayurvedic physiology and pathology of human body.

What is Health?

When the endogenous factors the digestive power the body elements and waste products are in a balanced physiological state along with well being of soul sense organs and mind then that individual is called as healthy. In additions the factors which affect characters of mind are also considered by Ayurveda in respect of health. They are property of purity of mind or goodness passion and delusion or ignorance.

Importance of Vikritivijnan?

The normal balanced physiological state of the body is called prakriti or samya the abnormal unbalanced pathological state of body is called Vikriti or Vaishanya. The knowledge of physiology is essential to understand the pathological processes occurring in the body. When a pathological lesion is produced it is manifested in the form of signs and symptoms of that particular disease. According to Ayurveda before the actual production of pathological lesion there is excessive accumulation provocation and then spread of Vara, pitta, kapha Ayurveda has described the properties functions types etc of these three endogenous factors also the signs and symptoms of their abnormality are described.

All this knowledge will help not only in early diagnosis and effective treatment but also in prevention of various diseases. The progress of a disease can be arrested at an early stage.


Introduction to the Second Volume

Ayurveda the science of life has described in detail about health and diseases. About various diseases it has described their etiology development signs symptoms prognosis complications etc. in detail.

In the first volume of this book of Regvijnan & Vikritivijnan the concept of Srotas described in Ayurveda was considered in detail. Now in this second volume of the book the various diseases developed in strotasas are discussed in detail. While describing a disease we have covered the important point like definition anatomy and physiology of that strotas described in Ayurveda etiology pathogenesis signs-symptoms complications after effects signs of severity prognosis differential diagnosis etc. The diseases are described srotas wise e.g. pranvaha Rasavaha etc. A line of treatment alongwith do’s and don’t is also included in brief.

As Ayurveda has given special importance to Vata vyadhi we have described them in a separate chapter. At the end of description of each disease the concluding remarks are given wherever possible in that the references of similar disease according to modern science are included. This will be helpful for the students in understanding the diseases & its comparison. The diagrammatic representation of Ayurvedic concept of Pathogenesis of a particular disease is also given wherever possible.

The important investigations necessary for the diagnosis of that particular disease are also mentioned. The topic of differential diagnosis which is a little confusing portion for the students is explained in a simple manner. The lise of botanical names of useful medicinal herbs is also included.

We anticipate that this description of disease will be useful for the students teachers research scholars of Ayurveda.


Contents to the First Volume


Chapter 1
What is Dosha? 1
What is Dhatu? 2
What is Mala? 2
What is Health? 2
Importance of Vikritivijnan? 2
Chapter 2
Patho-Physiology of Dosha Dhatu Mala
Dosha The Endogenous factors  
(1) Vata Dosha  
The Properties of Physiological Vata 4
The site or location of Vata 4
Functions of Vata 4
Types of Vata & Their functions 5
Causes of Increase & provocation of Vata 5
Manifestations of Increased Vata 6
Manifestations of Provocated Vata 6
Manifestations of Decreased Vata 6
(2) Pitta Dosha  
The Properties of Physiological Pitta 7
The site or location of Pitta 7
Functions of Pitta 7
Types of Pitta & Their functions 7
Causes of Increase & provocation of Pitta 8
Manifestations of Increased Pitta 8
Manifestations of Provocated Pitta 8
Manifestations of Decreased Pitta 9
(3) Kapha Dosha  
The Properties of Physiological Kapha 9
The site or location of Kapha 9
Functions of Kapha 9
Types of Kapha & Their functions 10
Causes of Increase & provocation of Kapha 10
Manifestations of Increased Kapha 10
Manifestations of Provocated Kapha 10
Manifestations of Decreased Kapha 11
Dhatu The Body elements (Tissues)  
Seven body Elements 11
The Production of body Elements 12
Theories of production & Nourishment
of body elements
- Ksheera-dadhi Nyaya 13
- Kedari-kulya Nyaya 13
- Khale-Kapota Nyaya 14
1. Rasa dhatu (Body nourishing fluid) 14
2. Rakta dhatu (blood) 15
3. Mamsa dhatu (Muscle Tissue) 16
4. Medo dhatu (fatty Tissue) 17
5. Asthi dhatu (Bone Tissue) 17
6. Majja dhatu (Bone Marrow) 18
7. Shukra dhatu (Semen) 19
Mala: Excretary Products  
1. Purisha mala (faeces) 20
2. Mutra mala (urine) 20
3. Sveda mala (Sweat) 20
Definition of Health 22
What is body nourishing fluid? 22
Chapter 3
Movement of Doshas
Meaning of Srotas Koshtha & Shakha 24
Movement of Doshas in the body 24
The Causes of disturbances in Normal
movement of Doshas
Relation of cavity & branch 27
Types of Movements of Doshas 27
Routes or site of Desease 28
The Importance of Route of a Disease 31
Chapter 4
Disease Contributory Factors
Five Contributory Factors of disease 33
Factor: 1  
The Doshas – Vata, Pitta, Kapha 34
The Innate Qualities of Doshas 35
Different ways of Vitiation of Doshas 36
- Natural & Unnatural Vitiation 36
- Dependent & Independent Vitiation 37
- Vitiation Similar or Dissimilar to body constitution 37
- Vitiation according to movements of Doshas 38
- Vitiation of two or three Doshas at a time 38
The Causative factors of vitiation or provocation 39
Factor: 2  
The Systems & Body elements (Dushya) 40
What is Strotas? 40
Role of Srotas in Pathogenesis 41
-Morphology of a system 41
- The Root site of system 41
- The number of system 42
Metabolism in a system 43
Factor: 3  
The Defective Site in the body 43
Etiology of defective Site 44
Causes of Vitiation of a system 45
Defect in system & Vitiation of system 46
General Manifestation of Vitiated system 46
- Excessive production 46
- obstruction 47
- Reduced Lumen 48
- Diverted Movements 48
Factor: 4  
The Undigested Harmful toxic waste product 48
What is Ama? 49
Causes of production of Ama 49
- Reduced digestive power 49
- The state of Doshas 51
- Normalcy of Organ of digestive power 52
- Excess accumulation of Metabolites 52
Manifestations of Ama 52
Factors Responsible for Manifestations of Ama 54
Manifestation of Disease when undigested
waste product is present (sama Vyadhi)
Factor: 5  
The Digestive power (Agni) 57
The Types of Digestive Power 59
Chapter 5
The Disease
The Synonyms of Disease 61
Definition of a Disease 62
Relation between Dosha & Disease 63
Cause & Creation Relationship 63
Disease Related to self 63
The Classification of Disease 66
Disease Caused by External Agents 67
Disease Due to Divine Causes 67
80 Diseases of Vata 70
40 Diseases of Pitta 72
20 Diseases of Kapha 73
Commingling of disease & Cause 74
Commingling of Disease & Manifestation 74
Quality Differentiation of Pathogenesis 70
Seriousness of Disease 75
Classification of Disease (W.H.O) 76
Chapter 6
Stages of Disease
Etiology of Change in stages 78
Different Stages of Disease 80
- According to stages of Doshas 81
- According to stages of Body Elements 82
- According to stages of Obstruction in a system 82
- According to stages of Undigested Product 83
- According to Nature of Disease 83
Important of Stages of Disease 83
Advancement of Disease into Body Elements 84
Disease due to Vitiation of body Elements/System 87
Disease due to Vitiation of Organs 90
Disease due to Vitiation of Sub-Elements 90
Disease due to Vitiation of Excretory Products 91
Chapter 7
The Systemic Pathology
Respiratory System 92
Digestive System 93
Water or body Fluid System 94
Body Nourishing Fluid/Lymphatic System 95
Circulatory & Heamopoetic System 96
Muscular System 97
Fatty Tissue System 97
Skeletal or Bone tissue System 98
Bone marrow or Nervous System 98
Reproductive System 99
Menstruation System 99
Urinary System 100
Defecation System 100
Perspiration System 101
Chapter 8
The Vital Essence
The Entry of Vital essence into Human Body 102
Location & Nature of vital Essence 102
Subdivision of Vital Essence 102
Abnormalities of Viral Essence 103
Importance of Vital essence 104
Chapter 9
The Five Diagnostic Criteria
Etiological Factors (Nidan)  
Types of Etiological Factors 106
(1) – Sannikrishta hutu 107
– Viprakrishta hetu 107
– Vyabhichari hetu 108
– Pradhanika hetu 109
(2) – Asatmya Indriyartha Samyoga 110
– Prajnaparadha 112
– Parinama 113
(3) – Vitiating Causes 114
– Cause of Disease 114
– Both Etiological factors 115
(4) – Developing Causes 115
– Motivating Causes 116
(5)– External Causes 116
– Internal Causes 116
Importance of Etiological factors 116
Prodromal Symptoms (Purvarupa)  
Definition of Prodromal Symptoms 117
Classification of Prodromal Symptoms 119
Importance of Prodromal Symptoms 119
Types of Prodromal Symptoms 119
Clinical Manifestation (Rupa)  
Signs & Symptoms 121
- Specific Diagnostic symptoms 123
- Dosha- wise symptoms 123
- Stage wise symptoms 123
- Symptoms Felt by the Patient 123
- Sings observed by the physician 124
Disease symptoms 124
Importance of symptoms 123
Relieving & Aggravating Factors (Upashya-Anupashaya)  
Types of Relieving & aggravating Factors 126
Difference between Relieving factors & Treatment 127
Importance of Relieving factors 128
Pathogenesis (samprapti)  
Role of Etiology in Pathogenesis 129
Role of Body Elements in Pathogenesis 129
The Symptoms According to the defective site 130
Role of Organs or sites in Pathogenesis 131
Pathogenesis & Six stages in action 131
Manifestation (Vyakti) 132
Differentiation (bheda) 132
Types of Pathogenesis 133
Importance of knowledge about pathogenesis 137
Chapter 10
Definition of Complications 138
Types of Complications 139
Disease with Complications & Two
Disease at a time
Complications & After effect 140
Complications & stage of Disease 141
Chapter 11
Death Indicating Symptoms
Types of Death indicating Symptoms 142
- Symptoms due to disorders of sense organs 143
- Symptoms of physical disorders 144
- Mental Symptoms 144
- Abnormal Prodromal Symptoms 144
- Common Death indicating Symptoms 145
Chapter 12
Prognosis & Four Essentials of
Good Prognosis
Prognosis of a Disease 146
Classifications of Prognosis 146
Easily Curable (Sukha-sadhya) 147
Difficult to cure (kashtra-sadhya) 148
Under control by treatment (Yapya) 149
Uncurable by any treatment (asadhya) 150
The four Basic essentials of Prognosis 150
- Physician 151
- Medicine 151
- Nurse 152
- Patient 152
Chapter 13
Etiology of epidemics 153
Nitya Atankapraya Hetu 154
Aniyata Atankapraya Hetu 155
Symptoms of epidemics 156
Treatment of Epidemics 157
Management of Epidemics 157
Chapter 14
Hereditary Diseases
Maternal Organs in Faetus 158
Paternal Organs in Faetus 158
Causes Responsible for Hereditary Disease 159
Chapter 15
The Body Resistance
Responsible Factors of body Resistance 161
- Power of mind 161
- Vital Essence 161
- Digestive Power 161
- Physical Strength 162
Type of Strength 163
Factors affecting the strength 163
Modern Concepts of Immuno Physiology
& Immuno Pathology
Chapter 16
Examination of patient & Disease
Two Methods of Examination 166
Three Methods of Examination 167
- History of the patient 167
- Direct physical examination 167
- Inference 168
Four Methods of Examination 168
Five Methods of Examination 169
Six Methods of Examination 169
Eight Methods of Examination 169
- Examination of pulse 170
- Examination of Tongue 171
- Examination of Urine 172
- Examination of Stool 173
- Examination of Sound 175
- Examination by touch or Palpation 176
- Examination of Eye 176
- Examination of Physical stature of constitution 177
Chapter 17
Ten Methods of Examination
Cardinal Factors of the Examination 179
(1) Examination of body constitution 179
- Characters of Kapha constitution 180
- Characters of Pitta constitution 181
- Character of Vata constitution 182
(2) Pathological investigations 185
(3) Examination of quality of body elements 185
(4) Examination of Tone of the muscles 188
(5) Proportions of body parts 188
(6) Acceptability of the body 189
(7) Examination of Mental courage 190
(8) Examination of Digestive capacity 191
(9) Examination of capacity of exercise 191
(10) Examination of Age factor 192
The importance of Ten Methods of Examination 193
Chapter 18
Record of patients Examination
Collection of patients information 194
Chief complaints 195
Present History 195
Past history of Disease & treatment 195
Family history 195
General Examination 195
Patient’s Examination 196
Systemic Examination 197
Laboratory Examination 201
Examination according to six stages of disease 201
The doshas involved 201
The Body elements affected 201
The Excreta affected 202
Nidan Panchak 202
Pathogenesis described of compendium 202
Relieving. Aggravating factors 202
Diagnosis 202
Contents to the Second Volume


Chapter 1
Pran Vaha Stotas
1 Pratishyaya 2
2 Kasa 11
3 Shwas 26
4 Hikka 38
5 Hridroga 45
6 Hridayabhighat 55
7 Parshwashula 56
8 Rahayakshama 61
9 Shosha 76
Chapter 2
Anna Vaha Srotas
1 Agnimandya 81
2 Ajeema 85
3 Alasaka 90
4 Vilambika 92
5 Arochaka 93
6 Aadhman 96
7 Amlapitta 96
8 Shula 102
9 Grahani 110
10 Krimi 118
11 Chhardi 123
Chapter 3
Uddak Vaha Srotas
1 Trishna 129
2 Arisar 135
3 Pravahika 143
4 Visuchika 148
5 Udar 150
6 Shotha 161
Chapter 4
Rassa Vaha Srotas
1 Jwar 170
2 Pandu roga 196
3 Aama vata 204
4 Dhamni pratichaya 208
5 Urusthamba 208
Chapter 5
Rakta Vaha Srotas
1 Kamla 211
2 Rakta Pitta 218
3 Daha 224
4 Pada Daha 227
5 Pleeha roga 228
6 Raktah Krimi 231
7 Shleepada 232
8 Phiranga 235
9 Upadansha 238
10 Kushtha 239
11 Kilas Kushtha 250
12 Visarpa 252
13 Sheetapitta Udarda
14 Masurika 260
15 Sheetala 266
16 Romantika 268
17 Tila Kalak 269
18 Nyachha 270
19 Vyanga (Nilika) 270
20 Arunshika 271
21 Darunak 271
22 Indralupta 271
23 Yuvan Pidaka 272
Chapter 6
Mamsa Vaha Srotas
1 Mamsagata vata 274
2 Snayugata Vata 274
3 Karshya 275
Chapter 7
Medo Vaha Srotas
1 Prameha 277
2 Medo Roga 291
Chapter 8
Asthi Vaha Srotas
1 Asthigata Vata 295
2 Asthyavrita Vata 295
3 Sandhigata Vata 296
4 Vata Kantak 297
5 Kroshthuk shrisha 297
6 Vata Rakta 298
Chapter 9
Majja Vaha Srotas
1 Shirobhighata 305
2 Bhrama 305
3 Unmada 306
4 Apasmar 310
5 Mada 315
6 Moorccha 317
7 Samnyas 321
8 Madatyay/ Panatyaya 324
9 Paramada 326
10 Atatwabhinivesha 327
Chapter 10
Shrukra Vaha Srotas
1 Klaibya 329
2 Shuka Dosha 332
3 Shukragata vata 334
Chapter 11
Mootra Vaha Srotas
1 Mootra Kriccha 335
2 Mootraghata 339
3 Tooni Pratitooni 344
4 Mootrashmari 345
Chapter 12
Swed Vaha Srotas
1 Bahya Krimi 350
Chapter 13
Purish Vaha Srotas
1 Malavasthambha 351
2 Udavarta 353
3 Vatashtila 354
4 Pakwashyayagat Vata 355
Chapter 14
Vata vyadhi
  Definition 356
  Etiology of Vata Vyadhi 357
  Pathogenesis 357
  Prodomal Symptoms 358
  Symptoms 358
1 Paksha vadha 359
2 Sarvanga Vata 361
3 Ardita 362
4 Gridhrasi 364
5 Vishwachi 365
6 Khalli 366
7 Djamistambha 366
8 Akshepaka 368
9 Apatamtraka 368
10 Apatanaka 369
11 Dandapatanaka 369
12 Hanustambha 370
13 Jihva Stambha 370
14 Mook Minmin
15 Manyastambha 371
16 Khanja 372
17 Pangu 372
18 Ansa shosha 372
19 Avabahuk 372
20 Vepathu kampa 373
21 Pada Harsha 373
22 Kubja 373
23 Kalaya Khanja 373
24 Urustambha 374
25 Aavrita vata 376
26 Dhatugata vata 380
Vyavaccheda Nidan
(Differential Diagnosis)
1 Swelling & pain in Joint 383
2 Cough (kasa) 383
3 Fever (Jwar) 384
4 Haemoptysis
(sarakta Stheevan)
5 Vomiting (Chardi) 385
6 Loose Motitions
(Drava mala Pravritti)
7 Pain in chest
Urah shoola
  Some other important  
  - Shwasa 387
  - Rajayakshma 387
  - Pandu 388
  - Kamala 388
  - Amlapitta 389
  - Raktapitta 389
  - Prameha 390
  - Udar 390
  - Shoola 391
  - Shotha 391
  - Pakshavadha 392
  Index of herbs 393
  Bibliography 396


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