A Text Book of Rasashastra

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Item Code: IDK458
Publisher: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan
Author: Dr. Vilas Dole and Dr. Prakash Paranjpe
Edition: 2016
ISBN: 8170842290
Pages: 458 (30 B/W Illustrations)
Cover: Paperback
Other Details 8.5" X 5.5"
Weight 520 gm
Fully insured
Fully insured
Shipped to 153 countries
Shipped to 153 countries
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Book Description


According to Indian philosophy, the ultimate aim of human life is to achieve salvation. In the developmental stream of civilization, hunger and sorrow are the important factors, which compelled mankind to search a solution. Man identified many things from his surroundings, which were found to be useful in eliminating hunger and sorrow. In this series, various nutritive food and drug materials have been explored. Chronologically, different kinds of knowledge were developed and society became civilized. Time, season, food habits and life-style influenced the human health. Due to change in food habits and life-life-style, various new diseases were produced. Simultaneous their remedy and management were also developed. Man has specific sense organs and wisdom, which differs him from other creatures. Hence, man is able to think about the future and recollect the past. In this connection, spiritual thoughts and findings were evolved. Spiritual achievement is possible with the specific mental status and concentration. Feeling and realization of truth or existence of God is possible with the super concentration. This type of super concentration is possible with good physical and mental status. After achieving amenities essential for the human life, spiritual thought appears, which compels the person to think about the future.

Diseases and senility are the important factors, which create hindrance in happiness and pleasure of life. For the prevention of disease and senility, various measures and ways were explored. In the ancient therapeutics, this measure is known as Rasayana therapy. It provides resistance and vitality, prevents senility, produces a disease free strong body and also a feeling of sense of wellbeing. Many materials were identified to possess immuno-booster and rejuvenating properties. With the help of rejuvenating measures, mankind achieved long and healthy life span.

Ayurveda is a holistic and divine life science. It was developed by the divine people on realization through their deep sense and supper concentration. What so ever may be their thoughts and findings, they are very correct and time tested.

Earlier vegetable sources of materials were the main source of diet and drug. Later on animal products and mineral materials were also identified and incorporated in therapeutics. Particularly, mineral materials were found very potent for the elimination of diseases and rejuvenation purpose. However, during the Samhita period the use of minerals were very limited. Minerals are associated with various impurities and toxins. If administered as such, they may prove injurious and harmful for health. To make them therapeutically suitable, it is necessary to eliminate the toxic qualities in them.

For elimination of impurities and to make them suitable for internal administration, specialized procedures like Shodhan, Marana, and Samskara were developed in the mediaeval period (i.e. 8-10th cent. AD). After the development of these procedures, mineral originated material and their products like Bhasmas, Kupipakvas, Parpati, Pottali etc. became frequent in use in Ayurvedic therapeutics.

Rasashastra is a branch of learning of Ayurveda pharmaceutics, specially dealing with the minerals, metals, precious stones, certain poisonous herbs and their processing. These materials are very potent in eliminating dreadful diseases and also for rejuvenation purposes. Mineral based products are known as Rasaushadhi. Due to their small dose, quick effectiveness, tastelessness, effectiveness on dreadful diseases and long self life. Rasaushadhis occupied superior status among the Ayurvedic medicine.

It also believed that Rasashastra is an expansion of Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy. Most of the dravyas of Rasashastra possess Rasayana properties. Mercury is the chief material of Rasashastra. Rasashastra is developed on the nucleus of Mercury. Mercury is such a material, which consumes all the metals and materials of the universe. Hence, Mercury is considered as essence of minerals.

There is no materials in the universe without having therapeutic property. Materials possess properties according to their physico-chemical constitution. Mercury is one of them having wide range of therapeutic property. Due to its amalgamating quality, it carries the properties of the amalgamated/consumed materials. No other material has this type of specific quality. After consumption of various materials, it develops high therapeutic in Ayurvedic therapeutics.

Ayurveda is recognized through its medicine. Medicine is a too by which diseases are eradicated. Genuine and standard medicine can only serve this purpose. Training in drug manufacturing is imparted to the Ayurvedic students during their study period to make them confident in drug manufacturing so that they may successfully treat their patients with genuine and standard drugs. Keeping this in view, Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana is included in curriculum of Ayurveda. Earlier, subject was taught through the ancient classical texts like Rasaratnasamuch-chaya, Rasendra Chudamani, Ayurveda Prakash etc. Now many compilation texts are written and available for the students according to the syllabus. Apart from Hindi, these books are also available in regional languages.

Nowadays Ayurveda is attaining global recognition and hence there is a need of making these books available in English. In Rasashastra subject, very few books are available in English. There is a need of a book on Rasashastra in English language with good commentary. In this direction Dr. Paranjpe and Dr. Dole have made an excellent attempt and contributed a nice book on Rasashastra. This book reflects and hard and sincere efforts made by the authors. They have covered the entire subject matter with proper scientific explanation. This book is a complete text of Rasashastra and will prove highly beneficial for the teachers, researchers and students of Rasashastra. It will also serve as a good reference text for foreign scholars. I extend my heartiest congratulations to the authors and wish they may contribute much more in the field of Rasashastra and Ayurveda in future.


Authors' inspiration for this book grew out of a strong belief that Rasashastra should be shared not only with Indians but with the people all over the world. The wisdom of Ayurveda is recorded in Sanskrit, the ancient language of India. Hence, the authors have deliberately quoted the original Sanskrit verses throughout the book. At the same occasions it was difficult to explain certain concepts of Rasashastra when no adequate English translation may be made. On their first appearance in this text, these are clearly and simply elucidated.

Though history of Rasashastra dates back even before 300-400 B.C., when Koutilya's Arthashastra was documented, more and more valuable additions on the subject were recorded during 12th to 16th century. Almost all of them are in Sanskrit. Rasashastra is a vast treasure of knowledge on Mercury and various other metals regarding different methods of their purifications and their therapeutic uses. The medicines described in Rasashastra are fast-acting, effective and more potent. The scope of Rasashastra is very vast and it encompasses the study of ancient pyrometry, various appliances, many minerals, gems and animal sources as medicine. In this book, apart from a mere translation from the classics, a sincere effort for the conceptual understanding of the subject is attempted by us.

A conscious effort has also been made to bridge the gap between Ayurvedic philosophy and modern postulates and parameters and develop an integrated approach, based on sciences like chemistry, metallurgy and gemology etc. We are sure that it will be appreciated by students, scientists, researchers, teachers and even by a common man. However, this book has been written more in the interest of the students of 2nd year of Ayurvedacharya course as per the syllabus, which is common all over India. We hope it will serve the student fraternity all over India.

From the Jacket

Dr. Vilas Dole obtained the degree of B.A. M. & S in 1969 from Tilak Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Pune, affiliated to Pune University. The post graduate degree of M.D. in Rasashastra was also obtained from the same institute.

Dr. Dole is head of department of Rasashastra as well as Joint Director of Centre for Post Graduate Studies & Research in Ayurveda in Tilak Mahavidyalaya.

His teaching experience is about 30 years. There are four books on Rasashastra Bhaishjya Kalpana written in Marathi to his credit which are very popular amongst students of Maharashtra State.

About the Author

Dr. Prakash Paranjpe, graduated in Ayurveda B.A.M&S. from University of Pune, in 1974 and then secured M.B.B.S. degree from Nagpur University in 1981. Subsequently he did his Ph. D. from Open International University of Complimentary Medicine, Colombo in 1990. he is practicing Ayurvedic Consultant for more than two decades, specialized in the treatment of Acne and Obesity. He is actively engaged in clinical research on various Ayurvedic drugs and herbs to combat especially chronic diseases.

He has to his credit many research articles which have been published in various Indian and Foreign scientific journals. He has visited Italy and Germany couple of times to deliver lectures on Ayrveda and medicinal herbs. He also pursued the full course in Italian language of Italian Embassy Cultural Center, at Deccan College, Pune. He has traveled across the length and breadth of India to photograph various medicinal plants, in different seasons.

Dr. Paranjpe is founder member and director of Ayurved Research Foundation, Pune, India. He is also director of S.K.A. Ayurveda,

Back of the Book


"A Text Book of Rasashastra"

Written by Dr. Vilas Dole and Dr. Prakash Paranjpe is a unique textbook in English on the subject. Incorporation of various tables, flow-charts, line-drawings and coloured photographs have enriched the book in its substance. Humble efforts of the authors to integrate Ayurvedic philosophy with modern postulates and parameters add to the value of this book. This book will be of a great help not only to the 2nd Year students of Ayurveda, but also to researchers, teachers, scientists and people interested in Ayurveda allover the world.




(1) Introduction to Rasashastra  
Definition of Rasashastra 2
Short History of Rasashastra 5
Etymology of the word 'Rasa' 10
Rasayana 11
Building of Pharmacy 11
Instruments and Machines 14
(2) Terminology  
Lavana-panchaka 17
Lavana-shataka 17
Kshara-panchaka 17
Kshar-dvaya & Kshara-traya 18
Ksharashtaka 18
Madhura-traya 18
Amlavarga 19
Amla-panchaka 19
Aparam Amlapanchaka 19
Panchamrita 20
Panchagavya 20
Kshira-traya 20
Dravaka gana 20
Kajjali 21
Rasapanka 21
Rasapishti 21
-Navanita pishti 22
-Patana pishti 22
Bhavana 22
Dhalana 23
Awapa 23
Nirwapa 23
Nirwapana 23
Shodhana 23
Mritaloha 24
Panchamrittika 24
(3) Science of Appliances  
Definition of an Apparatus: Yantra 28
Dola yantra 29
Damru yantra 31
Sthali yantra 31
Puta yantra 32
Palika yantra 33
Swedana yantra 33
Valuka yantra 34
Vidyadhar yantra 36
Vidyadhar yantra 36
Patana yantra 37
-Urdhwapatana yantra 37
-Adhahpatana yantra 38
-Tiryakpatana yantra 39
Bhudhara yantra 40
Kachchhapa yantra 40
Khalva yantra 41
Patala yantra 43
Tula yantra 44
Scientific balance 45
Udukhala yantra 46
(4) The Crucibles  
Etymology of the word Musha 47
Samanya musha (Ordinary crucible) 48
Vajra musha (Hard crucible) 48
Pakva musha (Roasted crucible) 49
Gostani musha (Under shaped crucible) 49
Adhunika musha (Modern crucible) 50
Sandhi-bandhana (Joint sealing) 50
Mritkarpata (Rags & mud) 51
Plaster of Paris 52
Mudra (A Seal) 52
-Madana mudra 53
-Hatha mudra 53
(5) Fireplace and Ancient Pyrometry  
Koshthi (Fireplace) 55
Angarakoshti 55
Patalakoshthi 56
Garakoshthi 57
Chulhika 58
Puta 58
Mahaputa 60
Gajaputa 61
Varahaputa 62
Kukkutaputa 62
Kapotaputa 63
Gobaraputa 63
Bhandaputa or Kumbhaputa 64
Valukaputa 64
Bhudharaputa 64
Lavakaputa 64
(6) Mercury  
General and Introductory Information 66
Synonyms of Mercury 66
-based on Dehavada 67
-based on Dhatuvada 68
-based on Indian Philosophy 69
-based on special properties 69
-describing external features of Mercury 69
-describing various motions 70
-based on mythological origin 70
Occurrunce of mercury 70
Ores of Mercury 71
Unwanted and Harmful properties f Mercury 73
-Naisargika dosha 74
-Yougika dosha 74
-Oupadhika or kanchuka dosha 75
Acceptable and unacceptable forms of Mercury 77
Physical properties of Mercury 78
Simple tests of pure Mercury 78
Chemical properties 78
(7) Production of Mercury  
Chemical purification of Mercury 82
Shodhana procedure 83
Purification of Mercury as per Rasashastra 86
General purification 87
(8) The Eight Staged Purification of Mercury  
Names of the eight procedures 90
Swedana 92
Mardana 95
Murchchhana 97
Utthapana 98
Patana 99
-Urdhva patana 100
-Adhah patana 100
-Tiryak patana 102
Rodhana or Bodhana 102
Niyamana 104
Dipana 105
Anuvasana 107
Discussion and comments 107
Rasankusha (The science and procedure) 111
(9) Parada: Gati and Bandha  
Parada gati  
-Jala gati 114
-Hansa gati 114
-Mala gati 114
-Dhuma Gati 115
-Jiva gati 115
Parada bandha 116
Hatha bandha 117
Arota bandha 117
Abhasa bandha 117
Kriyahina bandha 118
Pishtika bandha 118
Kshar bandha 118
Khota bandha 119
Pota bandha 119
Kalka bandha 119
Kajjali bandha 119
Sajiva bandha 110
Nirjiva Bandha 120
Nirbija bandha 120
Sabija bandha 120
Shrinkhala bandha 120
Druti bandha 121
Balaka bandha 121
Kumara bandha 121
Taruna bandha 121
Vriddha bandha 121
Murti bandha 122
Jala bandha 122
Agni bandha 122
Susanskrit bandha 122
Maha bandha 123
Classification of bandha 126
(10) Few Mercurial Formulations  
Kajjali (Black Murcury sulphide) 127
Parpati 130
-Mridu paka 132
-Madhyama paka 132
-Khara paka 132
Parpati devoid of mercury and sulphur 133
Actions of parpati 133
Rasa parpati 134
Suvarna parpati 136
Loha parpati 136
Tamra parpati 137
Vijaya parpati 138
Panchamrit parpati 139
Rasapushpa 140
Rasakarpura (corrosive sublimate) 141
Rasasindura (Red Mercury sulphide) 144
Makaradhwaja 146
Siddhamakaradhwaja 147
Hingulottha rasa 148
Mrityunjay rasa 149
Rajamriganka rasa 150
Hemagarbha pottali 151
Sarwajwarahara loha 152
Vatakulantaka rasa 153
Ramabana rasa 154
Kumarakalyana rasa 155
Garbhapala rasa 155
Pratapalankeshwar rasa 156
Lakshmivilas rasa (Kasa) 157
Lakshmivilas rasa (Rajayakshma) 158
Gandhaka vati 159
Chandrakant rasa 160
Abhra parpati 160
(11) Classification of Substances and Few General Procedures  
Marana 169
Pulverization 170
Bhavana 171
Controlled heat 171
Amritikarana 172
Tests of bhasma 173
General tests 173
Special tests 175
Sattvapatana 177
(12) Maharasa  
Abhraka (Mica) 179
Dhanyabhraka 184
Amritikarana of bhasma 185
Vaikrant (Fluorspar) 187
Makshika (Chalcopyrite) 190
Vimala (Cubic sulphide of iron) 194
Shailajatu (Black bitumen) 198
Karpura Shilajatu 203
Controvery in genesis of Shilajatu 203
Sasyaka (Blue vitriol) 205
Chapala 208
Controversies about Chapala 210
Rasaka 211
Few comments about Rasaka 215
(13) Uparasa  
Gandhaka (Sulphur) 217
Ayurvedic classification of Sulphur 219
Modern-Chemical Classification of Sulphur 219
Various uses of Sulphur 222
Gairika (Hematite) 225
Kasisa (Green vitriol) 228
Kankshi (Alum) 231
Haratala (Orpiment) 234
Manahshila (Realgar) 239
Anjana 242
-Srotonjana 243
-Sourviranjana 243
-Rasanjana 244
-Pushpanjana 244
-Nilanjana 245
Kankushtha 246
(14) Sadharana Rasa  
Kampilla (Indian Kamala) 249
Gouripashana (Arsenious oxide) 251
Navasadara (Sal-Ammoniac) 254
Kaparda (Cowrie) 256
Vahnijara (Ambergrees) 259
Girisindura (Red mercuric oxide) 261
Hingula (Cinnabar) 262
Mriddarashringa (Litharge) 264
(15) Metals  
Introduction 268
Classification 269
Historical background 269
General purification 273
Special purification 273
Prelude to extraction metallurgy 275
General properties of Metals 275
Metallurgy 276
Suvarana (Gold) 277
Rajata (Silver) 284
Tamra (Copper) 288
Amritikarana 294
Bhunaga sattva and Mayurapichchha sattva 296
Loha (Iron) 297
-Manda loha 300
-Tikshna loha 301
-Kanta loha 301
Mandura (Red iron oxide) 306
Vanga (Tin) 309
Naga (Lead) 313
Jasada (Zinc) 317
Kansya (Bronze) 321
Pittala (Brass) 323
Modern method of making Brass 324
Particulars of Metals 322
Particulars of bhasmas of Metals 328
(16) Gemstones and Semiprecious Stones  
Definition of Gemstones 330
Salient properties of Gemstones 331
The five Gemstones 332
How Gemstone are formed 332
Classification of Gemstones 333
Crystal systems 333
Gemstones favourite to the planets 334
Opacity & Transparency 334
Beauty and scarcity of Gemstones 335
Physical properties of Gemstones 335
Optical properties of Gemstones 336
Natural inclusions (defaults or flaws) of Gemstones 338
Manikya (Ruby) 339
Mouktika (Pearl) 342
Pravala (Coral) 345
Tarkshya (Emerald) 348
Pushparaga (Yellow sapphire) 350
Vajra/Hiraka (Diamond) 351
Nilama (Blue sapphire) 354
Gomeda (Hessonite) 356
Vaidurya (Cat's eye) 358
Vaikrant (Fluorite) 360
Suryakant (Spinel) 361
Chandrakant (Moonstone) 362
Rajavarta (Lapis lazuli) 364
Peroja (Turquoise) 366
Sphatika (Rock crystal) 367
Vyomashma (Jade) 368
Palanka (Onyx) 370
Rudhira (Carnelian) 370
Puttika (Peridot) 371
Sugandhika 372
Trinakanta (Amber) 372
Properties of Gemstones (Table) 374
Properties of Semiprecious Stones (Table) 375
(17) Calcium Compounds  
Formation of organic Calcium compounds 377
Natural sources of Calcium 378
I. Mineral Source of Calcium  
Churnaka (Quick Lime) 379
Khatika (Chalk) 380
Dugdhapashana (Talc) 381
Godanti (Selenite) 382
Kousheyashma (Magnesium silicate) 383
Badarashma (Fossile norinite) 384
II. Animal Source of Calcium  
Samudraphena (Cuttlebone) 385
Shukti (Oyster's shell) 387
Shankha (Conch) 390
Kapardika (Cowrie) 393
Mriga-shringa (Antlers) 393
Kukkutanda twak (Egg-shell) 395
Ajasthi (Goat's bone) 396
Pravala (Coral) 397
Mouktika (Pearl) 397
III. Plant Source of Calcium 397
(18) Poisons & Semipoisons  
Etimology of the word 'Visha' 398
Synonyms of the word 'Visha' 399
Classification of Poisons 399
Occurrence of Poisons & Semipoisons 400
Collection of Poisonous plants 401
Effects of Poison on the body 402
Purification of Poisons 402
'Marana' of Poisons 403
The Dose of Poison 403
The General antidotes 404
Vatsanabha 405
Vishatinduka 408
Ahiphena 410
Jayapal 411
Dhattura 413
Bhanga 415
Gunja 417
Bhallataka 418
Karavira 420
Langali 422
Arka 423
Snuhi 425
(18) The Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940  
General Information 430
Misbranded Ayurvedic Drugs 433
Adulterated Drugs 433
Spurious Drugs 434

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