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Susruta-Samhita with Dalhana's Commentary along with Critical Notes (Three Volumes)

Susruta-Samhita with Dalhana's Commentary along with Critical Notes (Three Volumes)
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Item Code: IDK022
Author: P.V. Sharma
Publisher: Chaukhambha Visvabharati
Language: English Translation of Text and
Edition: 2014
ISBN: 9789381301258
Pages: 1982
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details: 9.6" X 7.2"
weight of book 3.483 kg.

About the book

The Susruta-samhita is one of the twin compendia of Ayurveda encompassing all the aspects prevalent traditionally in India and abroad since the earliest times. It represents faithfully the school of surgery which made significant contributions to principles and techniques of surgery, which are surprisingly applicable even in modern era. It presents the status of ancient Indian surgery comprehensively and as such is in great demand among scholars all over the world.

The present edition of the Susruta-samhita is singular in the sense that, besides presenting faithful translation of the text, it brings forth, for the first time; it brings forth, for the first time, the English translation of the Nibandha-sangraha commentary by Dalhana who is regarded as the authority on the subject. The commentary supplements the text in many respects and as such proves an essential tool for understanding the samhita clearly and fully. Notes are also given here and there to elaborate the ideas with critical analysis. The text has also been checked and modified according to the readings accepted by Dalhana. Plants and other substances are also identified as interpreted by Dalhana. At the end of the text appendices are given which are very useful.

About the Author

Prof. P.V. Sharma is well known for his valuable contributions in the field of Ayurveda. During the last five decades he has written on various aspects of Ayurveda literary as well as scientific, conceptual as well as historical.

Born on 1st November 1920, in a small village near Patna, in the family of traditional vaidyas he gradually acquired highest degrees in Ayurveda, Sanskrit and Hindi and held highest posts in academic and administrative fields. In Bihar, he was, for many years, Principal Govt. Ayurvedic College, Patna and Dy. Director of Health Services (I.M.). Finally, he was appointed as Professor of Dravyaguna, also as Head, and later Director of the Postgraduate Institute of Indian Medicine, also Dean of the Faculty of Indian Medicine in Banaras Hindu University. He retired in 1980.

Prof. Sharma has been participating in international conferences abroad and has been associated with several committees on Ayurveda on national level. He has authored about 50 books and has about 500 published papers to his credit.


The Susrut-samhita is the representative treatise of the Indian school of surgery (Salyatantra) popularly known as 'dhanvantara sampradaya'. Dhanvantara is so called as it was founded by Dhanvntari who was the symbol of surgical expertise. Initially 'Dhanvantari' was the name of the founder of the school but later on became epithet of clinicians who were experts in surgery. Dalhana, in his commentary, presenting etymological derivation of the word 'Dhanvantari' say - one who has acquired full knowledge of surgery is known as 'Dhanvantari'. The practitioner of the school of medicine generally referred the cases requiring surgical interference to these dhanvantariyas who were proficient in surgical operations including application of cautery, caustic alkali and bloodletting. In the treatment of gulma caraka was mentioned twice the jurisdiction of dhanvantariyas to such cases. Under the treatment of piles, he refers the surgeons by 'eke' and avoids surgical interference therein because of requiring perfect skill and possible risks. As kayacikitsa (general medicine) is the main subject in the Caraka-samhita, Salya (surgery) is the chief one in the Susruta-samhita though it contains other subjects as well.

In early days, Brahmanas represented the intellectual community while Ksatriyas constituted the warrior class but gradually the later excelled in intellectual performance too, which is observed in the upanisads. Buddha, a prince of the warrior class, attained the glory of the highest wisdom. In the field of Ayurveda, Caraka and Susruta represent the above two groups, Caraka is the champion of Brahmanism while Susruta is a kingly sage trained under the tradition of Divodasa, king of Kasi, and a protogonist of the warrior class. That is why Susruta was freferred to Caraka in non-Brahmanical traditions which is testified by the reference of the former in Buddhsit literature.


The present volume contains nidanasthana, srirasthana and cikitsasthana. Nidanasthana (section on diagnosis) has sixteen chapters in all beginning with vatavyadhi and ending with mukharoga. In between are chapters on medical diseases like prameha and kustha and those on surgical diseases like arsas, asmart and fistulain-ano.

Sarirasthana (section on human body) of the Susruta-samhita is regarded as the best one because of the fact that here the human body is described in detail covering many aspects which are not found in other samhitas. In the latter group come description of the dissection of human cadaver and classified description of marmans. The method of dissection of the human body is described only in the Susruta-samhita. Though it was in a crude way it suggests the eagerness and curiosity to know the anatomical details by practical observation. It is surprising that the relevant passage of the Susruta-samhita stands single neither preceded nor followed or developed by any other text.

Description of marmans is also unique. The Susruta-samhita is essentially a surgical treatise and as the marmans had to be protected in warfare and during surgical operations in order to save life and physical ability of the person they have received utmost importance and as such are described in a systematic and classified way. Though Caraka has menfioned the number (one hundred and seven) of marmans in sarirasthana (7.14) and three chief ones-hydaya, basti and siras (Ci.26.3) their detailed description is absent there.

Apart from these, Susruta has distinguished sira, dhamani and srotas in a logical way. This exercise was relevant and necessary looking to the importance of venepuncture in treatment of various disorders.

Cikitsasthana (section on treatment) has rightly started with treatment of two types of vrana (wound), which consists of sixty measures in all. Thus it can be said as the most comprehensive and perfect management of wound. Surgical operation has been described in relation to treatment of piles, calculus, abnormal foetal presentation, udararoga etc.

It also describes daily routine and sadvrtta in way of preventive treatment. The two angas-vajikarana and rasayana- are also covered in this section. Then follow the procedure of pancakarma in detail the last chapter being on smoking, snuffing and gargling. Thus cikitsasthana covers both aspectssamsodhana and samsamana including rasayana and vajikarnana salya, of course, being everywhere.

Preface of Vol. 3

This last volume is in your hands. It contains the two remaining sections-Kalpasthan (Section on toxicology) and Uttaratantra (supplementary section).

The work 'Kalpa' denotes many ideas- It means simply 'preparations' as described in reference to vamana and virecana in Kalpasthana of the Caraka-samhita. It also includes basis facts of Ayurveda. The other meaning is- that which is markedly potent to exert its effect such as poisons and other potent drugs and formulations. It also means rejuvenative therapy. Rasayana, also known as kayakalpa, comes under this category. Susruta describes various poisons and their antidotes in Kalpasthana. Vagbhata follows Caraka. In later medical texts, a number of rasayana kalpas are described while Susruta mentions them in Cikitsasthana along with Vajikarana.

The uttaratantra contains Salakya, Kaumarabhrtya, Kayacikitsa and Bhutavidya (with mental disorders)-These four angas apart from some basic concepts about healthy living, pernutation of rasas and dosas as well as tantrayukti. In Susruta-samhita uttaratantra was additional one to the five sthanas that is why it is called as uttaratantra (additional to the text) but Vaghbata made it 'uttarasthana' (later section) like other sthanas.

The Susruta-samhita is mainly a surgical treatise but it has also to deal with several complications arising during the course of treatment of surgical diseases. Because of dealing with complications (upadrava) the uttaratantra is also known as 'aupadravika' (dealing with complications). The word 'uttara' does not denote only 'later' but also means 'superb' because of being impregnated with many diverse ideas.

Thus with this volume the set of the Susruta-samhita is completed. I hope, this edition added with Dalhana's commentary would satisfy and enlighten the readers on the concepts and technical skills of Susruta, the Father of surgery.

I am thankful to Dr. S.D. Dube, Head, Department of Dravyaguna, B.H.U. for having gone through the proofs with sincerity and devotion. I extend thanks to shri P.L. Giri for typing the manuscript. I also extend thanks to the publishers for bringing it out in a suitable form.


1. On origin of the Veda 3
2. On initiation of pupils 29
3. On the classified contents of the text 36
4. On interpretative discourse 55
5. On prior arrangement (of accessories) 60
6. On seasonal routine 73
7. On application of instruments 92
8. On application of sharp instruments 99
9. On aphorisms on practical work 107
10. On entry into professional field 109
11. On preparation and application of caustic alkali 113
12. On the method of cauterization 124
13. On application of leeches 134
14. On description of blood 142
15. On description of decrease and increase of dosas, dhatus and malas 156
16. On piercing and unification of ears 174
17. On enquiry into immature and mature (inflammatory swellings) 186
18. On pasting and bandaging of wounds 193
19. On management of the wounded (surgical patient) 205
20. On wholesome and unwholesome 213
21. On queries relating to wound 224
22. On description of ulcers and their discharges 240
23. On description of treatable and untreatable 246
24. On systematic enquiry into diseases 252
25. On eight types of surgical operations 259
26. On the knowledge of hidden foreign bodies 267
27. On extraction of foreign bodies 274
28. On the knowledge of adverse and non-adverse wounds 284
29. On description of adverse and non-adverse messengers and dreams 288
30. On conflicting perception of five sense objects 301
31. On derangements of shade 306
32. On contrariness of nature 312
33. On incurable diseases 316
34. On military medicine 322
35. On case-taking 327
36. On classification of land 343
37. On mixed therapeutic measures 348
38. On grouping of Drugs 355
39. On evacuating and pacifying drugs 368
40. On the specific knowledge of dravya (Substance including drug), rasa (taste), guna (property), virya (potency) and vipaka (final transformation) 373
41. On specific knowledge of Dravya (Substance) 381
42. On specific knowledge of Rasas 386
43. On various uses of emetic drugs 394
44. On various uses of purgative drugs 399
45. On description of liquid substances 414
46. On description of food and drinks 462
  Index 563
  Nidanasthana (Section on diagnosis) 1-114
1. On diagnosis of vatavyadhi (specific diseases caused by Vata) 3
2. On diagnosis of arsas (piles) 19
3. On diagnosis of asmari (calculus) 26
4. On diagnosis of bhagandara (fistula-in-ano) 32
5. On diagnosis of kustha (skin diseases and leprosy) 36
6. On diagnosis of prameha 45
7. On diagnosis of udararoga (abdominal enlargement) 51
8. On diagnosis of mudhagarbha (confounded foetus) 56
9. On diagnosis of vidradhi (abscess) 60
10. On diagnosis of visarpa (erysipelas) 66
11. On diagnosis of granthi (cyst), apact (scrofula), arbuda (tumour) and galaganda (goiter) 72
12. On diagnosis of vrddhi (scrotal enlargement), upadamsa (soft chancre) and slipada (elephantiasis) 79
13. On diagnosis of ksudraroga (mnor diseases) 84
14. On diagnosis of sukadosa 95
15. On diagnosis of bhagna (breach in movements of bones) 99
16. On diagnosis of mukharoga (diseases of mouth) 103
Sarirasthana (section on human body)
1. On consideration on all beings 117
2. On purification of semen and menstrual blood 126
3. On descent of embryo 140
4. On description of foetus 150
5. On detailed enumeration of body parts 170
6. On description of individual marmans (Vital spots) 184
7. On colour and division of sira (blood vessels) 200
8. On the method of venepuncture 206
9. On the detailed description of dhamani 216
10. On details about the pregnant 223
  Cikitsasthana (Section on treatment) 243-684
1. On treatment of two types of vrana (wound) 245
2. On treatment of sadyovrana (accidental wounds) 275
3. On treatment of bhagna (fracture and dislocation) 291
4. On treatment of vatavyadhi (specific diseases caused by Vata) 303
5. On treatment of mahavatavyadhi (major diseases of Vata) 312
6. On treatment of arsas (piles) 328
7. On treatment of asmart 340
8. On treatment of bhagandara (fistula-in-ano) 349
9. On treatment of kustha (skin diseases) 358
10. On treatment of mahakustha (leprosy) 375
11. On treatment of Prameha 383
12. On treatment of pramehapidaka (diabetic boils) 389
13. On treatment of madhumeha (diabetes) 394
14. On treatment of udararoga (abdominal enlargement) 400
15. On management of mudhagarbha (confounded foetus) 409
16. On treatment of vidradhi (abscess) 417
17. On treatment of visarpa (erysipelas), nadi (sinus) and stanaroga (breast disease) 424
18. On treatment of granthi (cyst), apaci (scrofula), arbuda (tumour) and galaganda (goiter) 435
19. On treatment of vrddhi (scrotal enlargement), upadamsa (soft chencre) and slipada (elephantiasis) 449
20. On treatment of Ksudraroga (minor diseases) 460
21. On treatment of sukadosa 470
22. On treatment of mukharoga (diseases of mouth) 473
23. On treatment of sopha (oedema) 485
24. On prevention of future ailments 490
25. On miscellaneous remedies 512
26. On aphrodisiac therapy of the debilitated 520
27. On rsayana pacifying all afflictions 526
28. On rasayana for those desiring sharp intellect and longevity 531
29. On rasayana preventing natural disorders 538
30. On rasayana eliminating afflictions 545
31. On the use of sneha (unction) 552
32. On the use of sneha (unction) 566
33. On treatment of disorders manageable by emesis and purgation 573
34. On treatment of the derangements of emesis and purgation 588
35. On measure and divisions of nozzle and bladder (enema) 599
36. On treatment of derangements of nozzle and bladder (enema) 608
37. On anuvasana (unctuous enema) and uttarabasti (urethral and vaginal douches) 616
38. On the procedure of niruha (non-unctuous enema) 637
39. On management of complications in patients 658
40. On smoking, snuffing and gargling 666
  Index 685
Contents of Vol. III
  Kalpasthana (Section on Toxicology) 1-102
1. On protection and management of food and drinks 3
2. On description of poison from immobile source 16
3. On description of poison of mobile source 26
4. On description of poisoning by snake-bite 35
5. On treatment of poisoning by snake-bite 46
6. On (treatment with) trumpet's sound 61
7. On (poisoning by) rats 67
8. On (poisoning by) insects 78
  Uttaratantra (supplementary section) 103-650
  Salakyatantra (Speciality on Supraclavicular diseases) 103-276
1. On complicative diseases 105
2. On description of diseases of junctions 114
3. On description of diseases of eye lids 118
4. On description of diseases of white circle 125
5. On description of diseases of black circle 129
6. On description of generalized eye diseases 132
7. On description of diseases of papillary region 139
8. On description of classified treatment 148
9. On treatment of vatika abhisyanda (conjunctivitis) 151
10. On treatment of paittika abhisyanda 156
11. On treatment of kaphaja abhisyanda 161
12. On treatment of raktaja abhisyanda 166
13. On treatment of scrapable diseases 176
14. On treatment of incisable diseases 179
15. On treatment of excisable diseases 182
16 On treatment of the diseases of eye lashes 187
17. On treatment of the diseases of the papillary circle 190
18. On kriyakalpa (applied pharmacy) 210
19. On treatment of traumatic disorders of eye 228
20. On description of ear diseases 234
21. On treatment of ear diseases 238
22. On description of nasal diseases 248
23. On treatment of nasal diseases 253
24. On treatment of pratisyaya (coryza) 256
25. On description of head-diseases 264
26. On treatment of head-diseases 269
  Kumaratantra (Pediatrics including Gynaecology) 277-312
27. On description of the features of nine grahas 279
28. On management of skandagraha 284
29. On management of skandapasmara 287
30. On management of sakuni 289
31. On management of revati 291
32. On management of putana 293
33. On management of andhaputana 295
34. On management of sitaputana 297
35. On management of mukhamandika 299
36. On emergence of naigamesa 301
37. On emergence of grahas 303
38. On treatment of disorders of female genital tract (gynecological disorders) 307
  Kayacikitsatantra (General Medicine) 313-584
39. On treatment of jvara (fever) 315
40. On treatment of atisara (diarrhoea) 373
41. On treatment of sosa (consumption) 408
42. On treatment of gulma (abdominal lump) 420
43. On treatment of hrdroga (heart disease) 444
44. On treatment of panduroga (anaemia etc.) 448
45. On treatment of raktapitta (intrinsic haemorrhage) 459
46. On treatment of murccha (fainting) 469
47. On treatment of panatyaya (alcoholism) 474
48. On treatment of trsna (polydipsia) 491
49. On treatment of chardi (vomiting) 500
50. On treatment of hikka (hiccough) 507
51. On treatment of svasa (dyspnoea) 514
52. On treatment of kasa (cough) 523
53. On treatment of svarabheda (hoarseness of voice) 535
54. On treatment of krmiroga (infestation of worms) 539
55. On treatment of udavarta 546
56. On treatment of visucika 556
57. On treatment of arocaka (anorexia) 563
58. On treatment of mutraghata (retention of urine) 568
59. On treatment of mutrakrcchra (dysuria) 579
  Bhutavidyatantra (Study on Bhutas including mental disorders) 585-608
60. On treatment of amanusopasarga (complications created by non-human agents) 587
61. On treatment of apasmara (epilepsy) 597
62. On treatment of unmade (insanity) 604
  Tantrabhusanadhyaya (Embellishing chapters) 609-650
63. On rasabhedavikalpa (permutation of rasas) 611
64. On svasthavrtta (code of healthy conduct) 618
65. On tantrayukti (textual devices) 630
66. On dosabhedavikalpa (permutation of dosas) 640
I. Plants 653
II. Animals (as classified in Su. 46.53-120) 701
III. Animals Products 706
IV. Inorganic substances 709
V. Units of weight (Ci. 31.7) 712
  Index 713

Sample Pages

Volume I

Volume II

Volume III

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