Dr. Sedative Kumara Dwivedi (1964), Asset. Editor bears a brilliant academic record with first class first Gold-medal in B.A. (Hons.) Skt. & M.A. (S kt. Sahitya) Exams. BHU. Obtained Ph.D. on mss. of Kuma-rasarithhava in 1992, later published by Sampurnanand Sanskrit University under the title A Textual Study of Kumarasarribhava. Being the younger son of Prof. Rewa Prasad Dwivedi, he is well-versed in the learning of texts of Sanskrit poetics and Literature and art of critically editing them. In the present work, he has been engaged in the collection & consultation of mss. & printed books, preparing of appendices, classification and numbering of subject-matter with proper headings, collection of references and above all formatting of the entire text through computer in the present printable form. Presently working as Reader, Dept. of Sanskrit, Faculty of Arts, and BHU.
Sringaraprakaga of Bhoja is the biggest work on Sanskrit aesthetics. It deals with almost all the elements of poetic composition in detail and at the same time presents all the secrets of Sanskrit Grammar. Bhojardja takes up every element of poetic composition under separate heading and elaborates their characteristics minutely giving suitable examples for each from Sanskrit and Prsdkrit texts. He further takes up the process of literary taste, the elements involved therein like Vibhava, Anubhava and Sancari etc. and discusses four types of Sringara - Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa. All the 64 art forms are also discussed in detail in SP. It comprises the components of dramaturgy also. Thus Spears the characteristics of an encyclopedia of Sanskrit criticism.
SP consists of 36 Chapters just like Kamasatra and Natyasastra. The earlier printed books of SP have been declaring the 26th Chapter to be missing. In this edition the chapters have been put in the same order as the earlier editions did. However, it has been suggested that the contents of the missing chapter might be covered if the subject matter of the 15th chapter, viz. the nature and types of Arayaka and Nayika, is divided into two parts (see verses 15.124 & 15.439 ). So far as the subject matter i.e. Purvaraga of the missing chapter is concerned, it is available at the beginning of chapter 22 of SP. It is probably because of the reshuffling in the leaves of the palm leaf manuscript of SP that the subject matter of the chapter has been transferred elsewhere. At the same time, Chief Editor of this work Prof. Rewa Prasad Dwivedi has composed afresh 26th Chapter of SP on similar lines in the Appendix I of the Volume II of this edition.
Scholars are of the opinion that the culture of Sanskrit poetic criticism reached the peak of its development with Bhoja and especially with its highest work SP, wherein the word Prakasa represents the state of supreme joy, called Rasa. This was the period when Abhinavagupta was trying to give utmost importance to Rasa, but with a logical approach; whereas Bhoja maintained the tradition of the poetic Agama preserved in Agnipurana.
In the direction of the study of SP this is our first step. Next we have a plan to complete its lacunas, prepare the translations into Hindi & English along with glosses. Prof. Dwivedi has an unparalleled genius of composing fresh literature in Sanskrit, yet he takes interest in the editing work brilliantly on the best ground of contextual meaning of any text. It has been amply exercised by him in the present edition.
In the 8th Prakaga of SP, the text printed in earlier editions has been modified on logical grounds to maintain the flow of the context. The text of SP printed in volume I of Josher’s edition on pages 276 and 277 and in the appendix III of Vakyapadiya edited by Abhayankar on page 327 is as follows: equal cough and On pages 417 and 418 of the present edition the above portion of the text has been modified to convey the logical meaning with proper punctuation as follows: Similarly the text of the 8th Prakaga of SP as printed in the Josher’s edition between pages 273-280 (Vol. I) has been put in proper sequence in the present edition in between pages 404-412. The sequence of 51 Bhavas discussed by Bhojardja with all their divisions in 14th Prakas needs readjustment following their sequence mentioned at the beginning of 11th Prakaga on page 614.
We have divided all the 36 chapters of SP in the sections called Adhikaranas & Prakaranas likewise in Kamasastra and Arthasastra but in the subject-index and not in the text. In the case of the duplication of subject-matter like the emotion called moha (page 799), we consulted the prior aesthetic work of Bhoja named Saraswatikanthabharana (SK) wherein a new emotion called sneha is available. We think that one moha in SP might have been the bhava - sneha but we can't change the heading as the definition of sneha is difficult to be applied in that context.
So far as the earlier editions of SP, including HOS-53 are concerned they are printed only in the manuscript form, without any type of classification of subject matters, numbering of the main headings and their sub-sections. In the present edition of SP all the topics have been classified and put under separate headings to make the subject matter more lucid for the readers. The Subject-Index of all the 36 chapters of SP has been prepared in about 42 (19+23) pages and put at the beginning of the text of both the volumes. In the first nine chapters of SP, Bhoja deals with 36 elements with the ratio of 4 in each. Going through every line of the text we have classified each topic separately. They can now be easily accessed by the scholars and even students.
In the appendices, we have given references of Natyasastra and Valcyapadiya separately, to enable the scholars to make a comparative study of the printed text of these two treatises with that of the SP. In the Second Volume of this work, more than 650 verses of Kalidasa, quoted in both the works of Bhoja - SP and SK, have been enlisted under the appendix - bhojaraja Kalidasasandarbhall. Bhoja quotes verses only from the six works of Kalidasa leaving aside Rtusarnhara. So also no verse is quoted from the 9-17 Cantos of Kumarasathbhava. Next to Kalidasa, Boa’s favorite poet is Bhavabhuti. For all the three plays of Bhavabhuti, separate appendices have been given in both the volumes. Similarly, verses quoted in SP from Kiratarjuniya and Sigupolavadha have also been enlisted in separate appendices. We have attempted our best to provide authentic text and nearest Sanskrit version of Prescript Gallas quoted in SP. Their variants have been enlisted in both the volumes under separate appendices. Though we could not prepare the appendices of all the works quoted in SP, yet we have given the references of most of them suitably for the help of scholars and students.
One of the important aspects of this work is enumeration of so many devices. We have not given discussion but followed the results. A comparative study of both the contemporary aesthetic theories viz. Dhvani and non-Dhvani stands untouched to avoid undue increase in the size of the volumes. At the same time, it is to be noted that Dhvani school and the Vyalijand are supported by Kashmiri aestheticians like Abhinavagupta; whereas Bhojardja gives importance to the soul and the Bhavakattva school of Bhattandyaka, though in a moderate way, because, while experiencing supreme bliss he doesn't think it necessary to apply the poetic device called sadharanikarana, initiated by Bhattandyaka and followed by Abhinavagupta.
Dr. Dwivedi, in his learned 31 page Introduction, informs us about Bhoja's life and works. Regarding his two poetic works 1. Sarasvatikanthabharana (SK) and 2. Sringaraprakasa (SP), he says that in both of these works Bhoja has followed the aesthetic canon of Agnipurana saying " Singara alone is the rasa having its synonyms abhimana, aharnkara etc." Regarding Sophie informs us that `It is an ocean of all the literary sciences' (page 43). He refers to two of the earlier editions of SP 1. Dr. Josyer's complete edition in four volumes from Mysore and 2. Dr. V. Raghavan' s edition for HOS (For details see Dr. Dwivedi's introduction). Dr. Dwivedi with his eagle eyes has pointed out several defects and deficiencies in these two editions and noted them in the above introduction.
The deficiencies in these two editions inspired him to undertake this third almost perfect edition coupled with all accessories and auxiliaries like the contents, and appendices as well as verse-index etc. It indeed reveals his great industry, penetrating insight, his wide scholarship, mastery over Sanskrit poetics and other related sastras. Dr. Dwivedi, notwithstanding his criticism of Dr. Raghavan, pays him glorious tributes in verse 49 of Bhojarajasamstava.
It deserves special mention that Dr. Dwivedi has 'made full use of the research work done in the field of Prakrit with particular reference to Bhoja' s two famous works on Alarhkara SK and gp by this writer and in Apabhrariga passages by Dr. Bhayani (see pagel4). It was Dr. Raghavan on whose need I could complete the work Prokn't Verses in Sanskrit Works on Poetics.
The real title of SP is `Sahityaprakasa' (11.356, page 675). It is Sahityaprakasa as both the types of literature Kava and Natya are covered in it like Sahityadatpana and unlike Kavyaprakasa of Magmata or Kavya(Dhvanya)loka iligdrapralcdasa 18 Foreword of Anandavardhana. It is called Sringaraprakasa the subject matter is mainly the exposition of Bhoja's new theory that Srinagar- aharikka-abhimana is the only one rasa and the popularly known eight (or nine) rasas are only rasas by courtesy. Bhoja describes also grammar (first ten chapters) and philosophy (from chapter 11 onward) in the context of Sringara and rasa in both Poetry and Natya which are essentially connected with the soul. Taking into consideration these essential components of SP Dr. Dwivedi would describe this work as 'Grammar-cum-Philosophy' of aesthetics. Here, the word grammar stands for the Grammar of poetic works also, covering guna, rasa, alarikka etc. Dr. Dwivedi is of the opinion that Indian Poetics has agamic beginning and that :Varna is considered beyond the limits of time. From another point of view he describes the work as 'A Great Anthology of Quotations'. Bhoja has dealt with 7389 verses including 1394 Gathas in Prdkrit. (page 49 and 57) Dr.Dwivedi's addition of the section of his own Bhojarajasadistava in verses108 is indeed appropriate, beautiful and therefore delightful. His description of the theory of four Dhaina and five Kalpas (not schools like rasa-alankara-dhvani etc.), is the distinct feature of this nearly perfect edition.
Towards the end of the introduction Dr. Dwivedi says that 'in the field of poetics, SP possesses the height of Everest and the depth of pacific ocean' . He adds long passage of Dr. Sheldon Pollock of Oxford (page 61). He finally emphasizes the need of a commentary on SP that he himself can do as the lost 26th chapter of this work has been composed afresh by himself and added to this edition in appendices. Besides he has completed some missing portions of verses excellently.
For this very valuable contribution to the study of Sanskrit literary criticism and Indian(Sanskrit) Aesthetics, Dr. Dwivedi deserves all admiration of lovers of Bhoja and scholars of Sanskrit Poetics and Aesthetics.
Book's Contents and Sample Pages
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