This work is a the result of years of hard toiling research by the guru - sisya duo. Comprehending the Sastras in god'd own language in difficult and more so in the case of computer.
The book is the fruit of the journey of the scholar's doctoral research. We hope that the book will be helpful for U.G., P.G. students and research scholars alike.
Dr. Chitresh Soni
Born and brought up in Rajasthan, Dr. Chitresh completed his graduation and Philosophy from the Univesity College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Udaipur.
He did his Masters in Sanskrit from the prestigious School of Sanskrit and Indic studies, J.N. U., New Delhi. After that he got the U.G.C. JRF to persue his
research. He wrote his Ph.D. under the able guidance of Prof. Girish Nath Jha and Prof. Naveen Kumar Jha.
Human language is very interesting. The faculty of
mind has infinite potential to create sentences. The revered
Sanskrit philosopher of language, Bhartrhari, has judged
the meaning to be one in mind though it manifests itself
in many forms. This meaning in mind is the root of all
varieties of behavioral language." Although the meaning
stands to be one butit is grasped through expression in vocal
language. The meaning is illuminated through the Sphota in
mind. The Sphota concept is like universal or linguistic type,
as opposed to their tokens." Sanskrit grammarians and
philosophers of language alike accepted and configured
the principles of the Sphota doctrine ina metaphysical way.
They view Sphota as the language capability of a person,
revealing his consciousness. This ultimate state of reality,
which resides in a person’s mind, is stated as Sabda-brahma
This notion of Sphota described by Patanjali is further
discussed by Bhartrhari at three levels
Varna-sphota — At the syllable level
pada-sphota — At the word level
vakya-sphota — At the sentence level
A distinction is made by Bhartrhari between sphota,
Which is one and indivisible and nada, which is divisible
and sequenced. Sphota is the root cause or the intention of
the speaker. It also illuminates in the listener, the mental
state as of the speaker. This theory of sphota and nada are
very relevant to a researcher in MT. It signifies the concept
of unified language discussed by ancient grammarians. Till
this date Artificial Intelligence’s essential aim is to make
computers intelligent so that they can first decode the
meaning of a sentence in the SL and encode it in a sentence
in the TL. It involves a complex process to understand
and internalize the lexical-semantic and morpho-syntactic
information and make use of it. This process is useful to
understand the Principles that make HCII possible. The
zest of the matter is that Artificial Intelligence aims to
understand and then implements intelligence using the
functions and methods of computation, thus offering a
radically new and different paradigm for theory formation.
Natural Language Processing is one of the areas of Artificial
Intelligence, where attempts are being made for computer
to understand and generate human language, either in one
language or from one language into another.
Initially MT was considered to be an easy way for
deciphering SL and converting it into TL. People thought
that if they were successful in mathematical or computer
representation of the syntactic structures of the sentences of
a natural language, they could quickly convert it to another
language using compiled dictionaries. Exact translation
would follow up by replacing words in the dictionaries
with their corresponding synonyms. After this they could
rearrange and reorder the words according to the syntactic
structure of the TL. But this work which seemed to be
very simple proved to be challenging. It is a particularly
difficult task in NLP at present. Both handling the context
of the sentences and the mathematical representation of the
grammatical structure was considered to be thorny. As a
result, the MT program, in the 1960s, went to a sabbatical.
Today MT systems focus on post editing or MAHT formulae.
Here the role of knowledge representation comes into sight.
In many systems knowledge representation techniques
such as semantic networks, first order logic etc. are used. In
any MT system, issues will always arrive. The best way to
find issues and challenges using an MT methodology in a
particular language pair is to actually R&D a system. This is
called constructive approach in the area of MT. Daksiputra
Panini also composed his genius work, the Astadhyayi using
the constructive approach. Panini’s Astadhyayi is termed as
"the greatest monument of human intelligence" by linguist
**Contents and Sample Pages**
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