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Sacred Book of the East- Pahlavi Text (Set of 5 Volumes)

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Item Code: NAC982
Author: E.W. West
Edition: 2010
ISBN: 9788120801066
Pages: 2235
Other Details 8.5 Inch X 5.5 Inch
Weight 3.22 kg
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Book Description
Introduction to the First Volume (The Bundhis Bahman Yast and Shayast La-Shayast

Though we must look to the Avasta for information regarding the main outlines of the Parsi religion it is to Pahlavi writings we must refer for most of the details relating to the traditions ceremonies and customs of this ancient faith which styles itself emphatically the good religion of the Mazdayasnians and calls its laity bahdinian or those of the good religion. In the fragments of the Avesta which still exist we may trace the solid foundations of the religion laid by philosophic bards and lawgivers of old with many mouldering column and massive fragment of the superstructure erected upon them by the ancient pristhod. These are the last remnants of the faith held by Cyrus the anointed of the Lord the righteous one or eagle whom he called from the east and the shepherd who performed his pleasure scattered fragments of the creed professed by Darius in his inscriptions when he attributes his success to the will of auramazda and mouldering ruins of the comparatively pure religion of oriental bar-barism which Alexander and his civilizing greek successors were unable wholly to destroy and replace by their own idolatrous superstitions while in the Pahlavi texts we find much of the medieval edifice built by later Persian priest craft upon the old foundation with a strange mixture of old and new materials and exhibiting the usual symptom of declining powers a strong insistence upon complex form and minute details with little of the freedom of treatment and simplicity of outline characteristic of the ancient bards.

To understand the relationship between these two classes of Parsi sacred writings, it must be observed that the Avesta and Pahiavi of the same scripture taken together, form its Avesta and Zand, terms which are nearly synonymous with ‘revelation and commentary.’ Both words are derived from verbal roots implying ‘ knowledge;’ Avesta being the Pahiavi avistâk, which may most probably be traced to the past participle of a, ‘to,’ + vid, ‘to know,’ with the meaning of ‘what is announced’ or ‘declaration;’ and 4ind, being the Pahlavi form of Av. zainti, must be referred to the root zan, ‘to know,’ with the meaning of’ knowledge, understanding’.’ European scholars, misled probably by Muhammadan writers, have converted :he phrase ‘Avesta and Zand’ into ‘Zend-Avesta,’ and have further identified Zand with the language of the Avesta. This use of the word Zand is, however, quite at variance with the practice of all Parsi writers who have been independent of European influence, as they apply the term Zand only to the Pahlavi translations and explanations of their sacred books, the original text of which they call Avesta. So that when they use the phrase ‘Avesta and Zand’ they mean the whole of any scripture, both the Avesta text and Pahlavi translation and commentary. And the latter, being often their only means of understanding the former, has now become of nearly equal authority with the Avesta itself. It is probable, indeed, that the first Zand was really written in the Avesta language, as we find many traces of such Avesta commentaries interpolated both in the Avesta and Pahlavi texts of the Parsi scriptures ; but this is rather a matter of European inference than of Parsi belief. The later (or Pahlavi) Zand appears also, in many places, to be merely a translation of this earlier (or Avesta) Zand, with additional explanations offered by the Pahlavi translators.

Regarding the sactedness of these Pahlavi translations, in the eyes or the Parsis, there can be no manner of doubt, so far as they cannot be shown to be inconsistent with the original Avesta text. But besides these translations there is another class of Pahlavi religious writings whose authority is more open to dispute. These writings are either translations and Zands of Avesta texts no longer extant or they contain the opinions and decisions of high priests of later times when the Pahlavi Language was on the decline. Such writings would hardly be considered of indisputable authority by any Parsi of the present day unless they coincided with his own preconceived opinions. But for outsiders they have the inestimable value either of supplying numerous details of religious traditions and customs which would be vainly sought for elsewhere or of being contemporary records of the religious ideas of the Parsis in the declining days of their Mazdayasnian faith. It is with a few of such writings this volumes has to deal but before describing them more minutely it will be desirable to give some account of the Pahlavi language in which they are written.

Introduction to the Second Volume (The Dadistani-I Dinik and the Epistles of manu Skihar) Part II

The Pahlavi texts selected for translation in this volume are distinguished from all others by the peculiarity that both the name and station of their author and the time in which he lived are distinctly recorded.

His name Manushikhar son of Yudan Yim is mentioned in each of the headings and colophons to the dadistan I dinik and the three Epistless attributed to him. He is styles simply a erpat or preist in the heading of Eps I and II and aerpat khudai or priestly lordship in that of Ep. III but he is called the rad pontiff or executive high priest of pars and priests in the colophons of Dd. And Ep. II and we learn from Dd. XLV 5 that the farmadar was also the pesupati or leader of the religion the supreme high priest of the mazda worshipping faith.

Regarding his family we learn from Ep. I iii,10, vii, 5 that his father yudan yim son of shahpuhar had been the leader of the religion before him and his own succession to this dignity indicates that he was the eldest surviving son of his father who in his declining years seems to have been assisted by his advice we also learn from the heading of his second epistle that zad sparam was his brother and this is confirmed by the language used in Ep. II vi, I, Ix 6 and by Zad sparam being a son of the same father that he was a younger brother appears from the general tone of authority over him adopted by manuskihar in his epistles. Shortly before these epistles were written zad-sparam appears to have been at Sarakhas in the extreme north east of Khurasan where he probably came in contact with the Tughazghuz and adopted some of their heretical opinions and whence he may have travelled through Nivshhpuhar and Shira on his way to sirkin to take up his appointment as high pries of the south heading II soon after his arrival at sirkan he issued a decree regarding the ceremonies of purification which led to complaints from the people of that place and compelled his brother to interfere by writing epistles threatening him with deprivation of office and the fate of a heretic. That Zad sparam finally submitted so far as not to be deprived of his office appears from his still retaining his position in the south while writing his selection whci must have been compiled at some later period free from the excitement of active and hazardous controversy.

The age in which Manuskihar lived in decided by the date attached to his third epistle or public notification to the mazda worshippers of Iran which date is the third month of the year 250 of Yazdakard corresponding to the interval between the 14th June and 13th July A.D. 88 at which time we learn he was an old man but not too old to travel.

His writings therefore represent that state of the Zoroastrain religion a thousand years ago and it may be presumed from the importance and influentialness of his position that his representations can be implicitly relied upon. To detect any differences there many be between the tenents and religious of the present time would require all the learning and experience of a Parsi priest but so far as a European can judge from these writings and his own limited knowledge of existing religious customs among the Parsis the change has been less than in any other form of religion during the same period.

Introduction to the Third Volume (Part III) (Dina-I Mainog-I Khirad Sikand-Gumanik Vigar Sad Dar

I. The Dina-I Mainog Khirad
The Pahlavi Phrase Dina-I Manog Khirad opinions of the spirit of wisdom is a name applied to sixty two enquiries or series of enquiries on subjects connected with the religion of the Mazda worshippers made by an anonymous wise man and answered by the spirit of wisdom. But as this name is only found prefixed to a manuscript written in A.D. 1569 in which the first part of the work is missing it is doubtful whether it be the original name of the book or not although it is very suitable to the general character of the work.

Regarding the reading of this name here adopted it must be observed that the correct pronunciation of the Pahlavi word mainog spirit is uncertain the traditional reading is madonad which is a possible pronunciation of its letters but is otherwise inexplicable Haug proposed to read mainivad or minavad but in that case the word ought to end with or with nd some of the present Dasturs read minoe but his would be written minoekin Pahlavi the Pazand writers have mainy but this is evidently an imitation of Av. Mainyavo and odes not correspond with the Pahlavi letters. As the word is manu or mino in the Sasamian inscritions and minu in Persian to which words a final letter of the Pahlavi word is not d or e but g a corruption of K, and that we ought to read ming or mainog. At the same time it should be noticed that a very old copy of the Pahlavi Farhang in the library of dastur Jamaspji Minochiharji in Bombay has the word written with an extra medial stroke so that it might be read minavand as required by Haug’s hypothesis although this copy of the Farhang gives mad one dast the traditional reading.

The subjects discussed by the Spirit of wisdom are of a very miscellaneous character and their discussion is evidently intended to furnish an outline of the tenets legends, and morality of the religion with which they deal but it forms by no means a complete or systematic treatise on these subjects and it is remarkably silent with regard to all details of religious rites and ceremonies. Which are only occasionally mentioned. This silence may perhaps be due to the fact that the author was a layman as seems clear from the account he gives of his doubts and acquiries in any incompleteness of the treatise may also be explained by the apparent loss of the latter end of the work as the sixty second reply terminates the extant text of the treatise abruptly and without any trace of peroration.

Introduction to the Fourth Volume (Part IV) (Contents of the Nasks)

Attentive readers of the sacred books of the east have had ample opportunities of becoming acquainted with the Zoroastrina scriptures so far as these have been preserved by the Parsis. In vol. Iv, xxiii and xxxi they have translations of all the texts extant in the original language of the Avesta excepting a few fragments which are not yet collected. And in vol. v, xviii and xxiv they have translations of later Pahlavi texts showing how faithfully the old doctrines and legends were handed down by the priests of Sasanian times to their immediate successors. But they will also have noticed that the translators of these texts are well aware of the fact that the texts themselves are mere fragments of the religious writings of the Zoroastrians which owe their preservation to the committed to memory by the priesthood such as the liturgy sacred myths and ceremonial laws. The objects of the present volume is to add to those fragments all the accessible information that can be collected from Iranian sources regarding the contents of the whole Zoroastrian literature in Sasanian times.

It has been long known that this literature was contained in twenty one Nasks or treatises named either from the nature of their content or from their initial words and each having one of the twenty one words of the Ahunavair attached to it as a kind of artificial reminder of their proper order and number while enumerating them. Very brief statements of the contents of each Nask Have also been accessible in manuscripts of the Persian Rivayats such as those translated in pp-419-438 of this volume and the existence of a much longer account of the nasks in the Dinkard was ascertained by Haug who published some extracts from it in 1870 when describing several of the Nasks in the Index to the Pahlavi Pazand Glossary. He was unable to do more on account of the defective state of all modern manuscripts of the Dinkaras in which a large portion of the text of the description of the Nasks in the eighth and ninth books is missing in various places without any hint of the omissions. These defects were owing to the abstraction of 52 folios of this part of the Iranian manuscript of the Dinkard after it was brought to India and before any copy of it had been written and even now two of these folis are still missing as stated in.

Introduction to the Fifth Volume (Part V) (Marvels of Zoroastrainism)

In the summary account of the spend Nask given in the eight book of the Dinkard chapter XIV it is stated in that many marvels owing to Zaratust are published therein just as there are some which collected and selected are noticed by the Dinkard manuscript. This statement evidently refers to the seventh book of the Dinkard which contains the legendary history of zaratust and his religion related as a series of marvels extending form the creation to the resurrection of mankind. A much briefer account of some of the same details occurs at the beginning of the fifth book of the Dinkard and appears to have been adridged from a compilation which was either derived partially from a foreign source or prepared for the use of foreign proselytes. A third compilation of similar legends is found among the selections of zad-sparam. And a careful translation of these three Pahlavi texts constitutes the Marvels of Zoroastrinism contained in this volume.

As the extent of Dk. VII is about 16,000 Pahlavi words it probably contains about four fifths of the details included in the spend Nask the Pahlavi version of which has been estimated in S.B.E vol. xxxvii to extend to 20,500 words. It says very little about Zaratust conferences with the sacred beings and gives no description of the other world and the way thither but it probably contains many verbatim extracts from other parts of the Pahlavi version of the spend Nask which appear however to have been previously collected in the exposition of the good religion an other MS that the Dinkard which is quoted as an authority in Dk. VII.

This seventh bok commences with a detailed statement of the descent of the glorious ruling dynasty from the primeval man Gayomard through his descendants the Pesdadian and Kayanian rulers to Kai-Vistasp. Among the individuals rarely mentioned elsewhere are the sacred being hadish.

Chapter II begins the legendary history of Zaratust with the descent of his glory from the presence of Auharmazd to the house in which Zaratusts mother was about to be bron and alarmed at her radiance the kavinga and karaps or ruling priests of the district oblighe her father to send her away to another valley where porushashpo resided to whom she was afterwards married and several legends are related in which both the archangels and archdemons are active agents which lead on to the birth of Zaratust thirty years before the end of the ninth miliennium of the universe and his complete genealogy is given.

Contents to the First volume

1The Parsi Scripturesix
2The Pahlavi Language and Literature xi
3The Bundahis xxii
4The Selections of Zad-sparamxlvi
5The Bahman Yast1
6The Shayast la-shayastlix
7Concluding remarks lxvii
Selections of Zad Sparam 153
Bahman Yast 189
Shayast la Shayast237
Index 497
Contents to the Second Volume

1General Remarks xiii
2The Dadistan Dinik xxii
3The Epistles of Manuskiharxxv
4The Appendix xxviii
Abbreviations used in this volume xxxi
Dadistan Dinik 1
1Introductory 3
2Why a righteous man is better than all creatures spiritual or worldly 11
3why a righteous man is created and how he should act15
4Why a Righteous man is great 20
5How Temporal distress is to be regarded 22
6Why the Good suffer more than the bad in this world 23
7Why we are created and what we ought to do 25
8Whether good works done for the dead differ in effect from those ordered or done by themselves 26
9How Far they differ28
10The Growth of good works during life29
11Whether the growth of a good work be as commendable as the original good work 30
12Whether it eradicates sin equally well 30
13Whether one is made responsible for all his sins and good works separately at the last account or only for their balance 31
14The angels who take account of sin and good works and how sinners are punished 32
15The Exposure of a corpse does not occasion the final departure of life and is meritorious 34
16Whether the soul be aware of or disturbed by the corpse being gnawed 36
17Reason for the exposure of corpses 38
18How the Corpse and bones are to be disposed of 43
19Whether departed souls can see Autharmazd and Aharman 44
20Where the souls of the righteous and wicked go 46
21The Daiti peak the Kinvad bridge and the wo paths of departed souls 47
22Whether the spirits are distressed when a righteous man dies 50
23How the Life departs from the body 51
24Where a righteous soul stays for the first three nights after death and what it does next 53
25Where a wicked soul stays for the first three nights after death and what it does next55
26The Nature of heaven and its pleasure56
27The Nature of hell and its punishments 57
28Why ceremonies in honor of srosh are performed for the three days after a death 58
29Why srosh must be reverenced separately from other angels 60
30Why three sacred cakes are consecrated at dawn after the third night from a death 61
31How a righteous soul goes to heaven and what it finds and does there 63
32How a wicked soul goes to hell and what its finds and suffers there 70
33The Position and subdivisions of hell 74
34The two ways from the Daiti peak that of the righteous to heaven and that of the wicked to heel 76
35The Continuance of mankind in the world till the resurrection 76
36The Preparers of the renovation of the universe 77
37The Contest of the good and evil spirits from the creation till the resurrection and the condition of creation after the resurrection 80
38The Effect of doing more good works than are necessary for attaining to the supreme heaven 120
39Reasons for wearing the sacred thread girdle 122
40On the sacred shirt and thread girdle grace before and after eating and cleansing the mouth before the after grace 133
41The Sin of apostasy and how to atone for it 136
42the good works of him who saves others from apostasy 139
43The Distance at which the fire can be addressed tne use of a lamp and the proper order of the propitiatory dedications when consecrating a sacred cake141
44Whether a skillful priest who is employed to perform ceremonies but is not officially the priest of the district should be paid a regular stipend 145
45The Separate duties of priests and disciples 151
46When a priest can abandon the priesthood to obtain a livelihood 153
47Whether a priest who know the Avesta or one who understands the commentary be more entitled to the foremost place at a sacred feast 155
48The Advantage and proper mode of celebrating the ceremonial 159
49Whether it be lawful to bur corn and keep it long so as to raise the price for the sake of profit 174
50Whether it be lawful to sell wine to foreigners and infidels 176
51The Sin of Drunkeness and what constitutes immoderate drinking 178
52Whether a man who bargains to deliver wheat in a month and takes a deposit is bound to deliver the wheat if its market price has risen enormously 180
53Whether it be lawful to sell cattle to those of a different religion 182
54Whether a man without a son can give away his property to one daughter on his death bed the laws of inheritance and when an adopted son must be appointed in such a case 183
55Whose duty it is to order the ceremonies after a death 187
56The Laws of adoption and family guardianship 188
57Those who are fit or unfit for adoption 190
58The Three kinds of adoption 191
59The Least amount of property that requires the appointment of an adopted son 192
60The Sin of not appointing an adopted son or of appointing a dishonest one 192
61The Merit and demerit of family guardianship 193
62The laws of inheritance 194
63Whether it be lawful to seize property from foreigners and infidels 196
64The Origins of gayomard Mashyath and mashyayoth 197
65The Origins of next of kin marriage 199
66Regarding the cost of religious rites and whether a priest’s fees can be reduced when others will take less201
67The Cause of the rainbow 210
68The Cause of the phases of the moon 210
69The Cause of eclipses 212
70The Causes of river beds 213
71What things happen through destiny and what through exertion 214
72The Seven heinous sinners and the necessity of avoiding him who commits unnatural intercourse 216
73Whether the stench of such intercourse reaches the sky 220
74Whether that stench disturbs the archangels 221
75Whether the angels raise such a sinner from the dead at the resurrection 222
76Whether it be a good work to kill such a sinner223
77Why Such intercourse is a henous sin 224
78Why adultery is heinous and how one can atone for it 227
79The Sin of not repeating the full grace before drinking (when one is able to do so) and how one can atone for it 233
80Regarding him who does not order ceremonies 237
81About the Ceremonies for the living soul 237
82About him who pays for ceremonies and him who takes the money without performing them 242
83Whether a priest must undertake all religious rites 244
84Whether gifts to the priesthood for ceremonies can be diminished or increased 245
85The Advantage of increasing such gifts 246
86The Harm of diminishing such gifts 248
87Why it is good to give such gifts 249
88About the cost of religious rites in pars250
89Whether when a man has once resolved to go into pars with gifts fro the priesthood it be lawful for him to send another man with the gifts 254
90The Seven immortal rulers in the region of khvantras before the coming of the good religion 255
91The Nature and material of the sky 259
92The Course and benefit of the water of Arekdvister262
93Tirstar’s seizing of water from the ocean to rain to upon the earth and his conflict with apaosh264
94Conclusion 269
Epistles of Manuskihar277
1Introductory compliments acknowledging receipt of a complaining epistle 279
2Deploring the false opinions in circulation owing to the fiend about the purification ceremonies 282
3Excusing any defects in this epistle for various reasons detailed 286
4Deprecating the disuse of the Bareshnum ceremony as decreed by his brother such disuse being contrary to scripture and the commentaries 292
5Alluding to the one sided view of the opinions of the commentators adopted by the decree they had sent 298
6Discussing the different statements of the commentators as to the number of purifiers and washings 301
7Discussing the proper quantities of liquids to be used and the 300 pebbles 304
8Regarding the stirring up of the bull’s urine when fetid as mentioned in the sakasdum Nask 309
9Deciding that the commentary which teaches the most efficient mode of purification is to be followed when there are no special reasons for acting otherwise 312
10Reserving other matters for special instructions to the priests but warning them not to obey the decree now denounced 316
11Arranging for the enforcement of his decision until he can write further or come himself and concluding with benediction and date 320
Epistle II to his brother Zad Sparam
1Acknowledging receipt of a former epistle and announcing the arrival of complaints about his brothers reprehensible decree 324
2Disapproving of the decree and its mode of dealing with the commentaries whose exact agreement is as unlikely as the simultaneous occurrence of several particular conjunctions of the planets331
3Exhorting him not to seek for new rules but to adhere strictly to the old customs 336
4Reasserting his opinions and protesting against the notion that the decree was in accordance with the practice of all the purifiers in Iran 341
5Commenting upon the secrecy with which the decree had been prepared and the evil consequences resulting from it 343
6Persuadign him to remain steadfast in the faith and threatening him if he should not 348
7Explaining that he had previously written to Sirkan and would shortly come there himself but ordering the appointment of proper purifiers 350
8Mentioning his general epistle to all of the good religion in Irn and describing the evil consequences of continued disobedience including the possibility of his won retreat to foreign lands 352
9Giving further instructions for satisfying the disconnected and opposing the heterodox and concluding with out date 354
Epistle III. To all of the good religion in Iran for bidding the substitution of a fifteen fold washing for the Bareshnum ceremony 359
Appendix 367-455
Corrections 479
Contents to the Third Volume

1The Dina-I Mainog I Khiradxv
2The Sikand Gumanik Vigar xxv
3The Sei Dar xxxvi
Abbreviations used in this volumexlvii
Dina – I Mainog-I Khirad1
1Introducing the sage and the spirit of wisdom 3
2How to preserve both body and soul including the fate of the soul after death whether righteous or wicked 9
3What Liberality and truth gratitude and wisdom mindfulness and contentment are good for 26
4The Nine chief good works divided into seven classes 26
5The Ten happiest lands 27
6The Ten unhappiest lands 28
7The four grades of heaven and hell with the neutral region between them and the fate of the souls in each 29
8How Autharmazd created the universe and Aharman corrupted it for 9000 years. The evil influence of the seven planets the good influence of the twelve signs of the zodiac and how far the good and evil can counteract each other.32
9The impossibility of going from region to region the substance of the sky and the mingling of the water in the earth 35
10The impossibility of peace and affection between Aharman and Autharmazd36
11Wisdom without goodness and skill without wisdom are useless37
12Worldly treasure is not allotted so truly as spiritual on account of Aharman’s chieftains the seven planets but after death every one is judged according to his own deeds 37
13Though animals knowledge is instinctive men obtain theirs only by toil because Aharman has concealed the results of good and evil and formed many false religions but the only true one is that taught by Zaratust39
14The Best protection friend supporter of fame helper of enjoyment wealth and pleasure 41
15The poverty and opulence which are good and the characteristics of good and bad government 42
16The Best food grace and fruit. The effects of wine on different tempers and when druck in moderation and in excess also why silk clothing is better for the body and cotton for the soul 45
17The Pleasure that is worse than unhappiness 49
18Why People disregard the changeableness of wordly things death the account of the soul and hell 49
19Living in fear and falsehood is worse than death 50
20The best and worst conversation for kings 50
21The fate of men who are worldly scoffing idle, malicious lazy, false hearted and arrogant 51
22How far worldly wealth can be acquired through exertion 54
23The Impossibility of contending with destiny54
24Providence can over rule destiny but rarely does so because of Aharman;s evil doings 55
25The Poorest of the rich and the richest of the poor 55
26A Blind mind is worse than a blind eye and an ill informed is worse than an ill tempered man 56
27The Several advantages resulting from the actions of Gayomand, Hoshang, Takhmorup Yimshed, as-I dahak, frasiyak, fredum, maushikhiar, kal kavad, sahm kai-us, siyavakhash, kal khusro kai loharsp and kao vistsp 57
28The most forgiving strongest swiftest happiest and most miserable 66
29What Must be most regarded and protected 66
30The worst life and most unforeseeing man 67
31The business of the three classes priests warriors and husbandmen 67
32The Business of the fourth class the artisans 68
33The worst ruler chieftain friend, kinsman wife, child and country 69
34Aharman can hardly disturb a wise and contented man 70
35The Seven kinds of men who are rich and the seven who are poor 70
36The thirty sins 71
37The Thirty three good works 73
38Why worldly happiness is not allotted to the worthy who are accepted in heaven 75
39Whose power is most seemly wisdom most complete disposition most faithful speech most proper goodness least friendship worst mental pleasure least, heart most seemly endurance most approvable and who is not faithful, what should be kept by every one and no one and also in conversation. Who cannot give evidence to whom obedience is due who must be minded and praised what must not be unexpected who is like authoarmasd and who like aharman 76
40What is coldest warmest brightest darkest fullest emptiest most fruitless without superfluity incapable of deprival cannot be bought satisfies every one and satisfies no one. What Autharmad desires from men and what Aharman does and what is the end in the worldly and spiritual existences 79
41The Mightiest man most dreadful road most perplexing account pleasantest tie most regrettable work and most unprofitable gift 81
42The three kinds of man 82
43The Spiritual armour and weapons requisite of attaining to heaven and escaping from hell83
44The Arrangement of the sky and earth flow of the water and resting place of the clouds where the winter demon is most predominant and the most undisturbed country 87
45How Aharman deceives whence is his pleasure where he has a foundation whom he haunts and whence is his food 87
46Aharman considers no injury complete unless he seized the soul 88
47What is better than all wealth predominant over everything and from which no one can escape 89
48The dwelling of the understanding intellect seed and wisdom in the body89
49The duties and motions of the stars Tirtar Vanand, Haptok ring the twelve signs of the zodiac and the rest the sun and the moon 90
50The Opulent person who is fortunate and the reverse 93
51Why a bad man sometimes succeeds and a good one fails 93
52How the ceremonies and religion should be considered and what is requisite for the renunciation of sin 94
53How the Homage and glorifying of the sacred beings are to be performed 95
54Why an ignorant man will not learn 96
55Why an ill natured man is no friend of the good nor an untalented man of the talented 97
56The Uses of mountains and rivers 98
57The Many advantages and uses of wisdom 98
58Though an ignorant king is esteemed by man a wise poor man is more esteemed by the angels 105
59The vices of the four classes priest, warriors husband men and artisans 105
60The Man conversant with good and evil 106
61Regarding Kangdes the enclosure formed by yim the body of sahm the abode of srosh the three legged ass the Hom tree gopataoshab the kar fish the griffon bird and kinamos 108
63The Best good work which requires no trouble 113
Sikand-Gumanik Vigar115
1Introducing the subject and the author 117
2Why Aharman advanced towards the light through of a different nature 122
3Why Autharmazd did not use his omnipotence to repel Aharman 124
4How the Stars came to be distributors both of the good produced by Autharmazd and of the evil produced by Aharman 127
5Proof of the existence of a creator derived from the evident design in the creation 139
6Further proofs of a similar description 146
7Proof of the existence of an injurer from the provision made against him 150
8Proofs of the same from the existence of evil 152
9Proof of the existence of the opponent before the creation and of his appearance afterwards 162
10Those who believe in the unity of creation also believe in a corrupting influence which is really another being 166
11The Inconsistency of those who trace both good and evil to a sacred being whose attributes are incompatible with the latter with references to various scriptures 173
12Other inconsistencies in the assertions of various sects regarding the sacred being 202
13Criticism of the Jewish account of the creation of the universe and the fall of man as given in the old testament 208
14Other Statement of the Old testament and Jewish tradition regarding the sacred being that tare inconsistent with his attributes 221
15Criticism of many statements of the Christian scriptures showing their inconsistency and that some of them also admit the existence of a separate originator of evil 229
16Criticism of some of the doctrines of the manichaens 243
Sar Dar 253-363
Contents to the Fourth volume

Abbreviations used in this volume xlix
Contents of the Nasks
Dinkard, Book VIII
1Classification names and divisions of the Nasks 3
2Sudkar Nask10
3Varstmansar Nask 12
4Bako Nask 13
5Damdad Nask13
6Nadar Nask 15
7Pagag Nask 15
8Rado Dad Aitag Nask 19
9Baris Nask20
10Kaskisroo Nask23
11Vistasp Sasto Nask 23
12Vastag Nask25
13Kitradad 25
14Spend Nask31
15Bakan Yast Nask 34
16Patkar Radistan Section of the Nikadum Nask35
17Zatamistan Section of the same 39
18Reshistan Section of the same 41
19Hamemalistan Section of the same 43
20Fifth Section of the same 53
21First Section of the Ganaba sar-nigad Nask 74
22Second Section of the same is miscellaneous 77
23Pasus haurvastan section of the same 81
24Storistan Section of the same 84
25Argistan Section of the same86
26Aratestaristan section of the same 86
27A Miscellaneous Section of the same 90
28Aerpatistan section of the Husparam Nask 92
29Nirangistan section of the same 94
30Goharikistan section of the same 97
31A Miscellaneous section of the same99
32Another Section of the same105
33Another Section of the same 105
34A Miscellaneous section of the same 106
35Another Section of the same 109
36Another Section of the same 112
37Another Section of the same114
38One of the first 30 Section of the Sakadum Nask 121
39Hakidakanistan section of the same 131
40Ziyanaksitan Section of the same 136
41Vakhishistan one of the last 22 section of the same 138
42Varistan Section of the same 144
43A Miscellaneous Section of the same 145
45Hadokht Nask 166
46Stod Yart Nask169
Dinkard, Book IX
1Introductory 172
2Sudkar Nask Fargard 172
3Same Fargard 2 175
4Same fargard 3 175
5Same Fargard 4177
6Same Fargard 5 178
7Same Fargard 6179
8Same Fargard 7180
9Same Fargard 8181
10Same Fargard 9185
11Same Fargard 10186
12Same Fargard 11189
13Same Fargard 12195
14Same Fargard 13196
15Same Fargard 14197
16Same Fargard 15199
17Same Fargard 16204
18Same Fargard 17206
19Same Fargard 18206
20Same Fargard 19209
21Same Fargard 20212
22Same Fargard 21219
23Same Fargard 22223
24Same Fargard 23226
25Same Fargard 2231
26Same Fargard 3232
27Same Fargard 4233
28Same Fargard 5234
29Same Fargard 6237
30Same Fargard 7241
31Same Fargard 8245
32Same Fargard 9252
33Same Fargard 10260
34Same Fargard 11263
35Same Fargard 12265
36Same Fargard 13269
37Same Fargard 14270
38Same Fargard 15273
39Same Fargard 16276
40Same Fargard 17282
41Same Fargard 18284
42Same Fargard 19289
43Same Fargard 20291
44Same Fargard 21294
45Same Fargard 22298
46Same Fargard 23302
47Bako Nask Fargard 1303
48Same Fargard 2308
49Same Fargard 3309
50Same Fargard 4311
51Same Fargard 5318
52Same Fargard 6322
53Same Fargard 7327
54Same Fargard 8340
55Same Fargard 9342
56Same Fargard 10345
57Same Fargard 11348
58Same Fargard 12353
59Same Fargard 13360
60Same Fargard 14364
61Same Fargard 15367
62Same Fargard 16370
63Same Fargard 17371
64Same Fargard 18373
65Same Fargard 19376
66Same Fargard 20379
67Same Fargard 21381
68Same Fargard 22383
69A Selection from the whole Yast referring to the developer 384
Datails of the nasks from other sources399
From the Selection of Zad Sparam 401
From the Dinkard Book III406
From the Book IV410
From Rivayat of Bahman Pungyah418
From Rivayat of Kamah Bahrah419
From Rivayat of Nareman Hoshang428
From Rivayat of Barzu Qiyamu-d-din 433
From Din Vigirgard438
Nask Fragments that are still extant 449
Contents to the Fifth volume

Abbreviations used in this volume xlviii
Marvels of Zoroastrainism
Dinkard Book VII
1Descent of the glorious destiny 3
2Parentage of Zaraturst 17
3His Birth Childhood and youth till his conference 35
4His Missions to the Karaps and vistasp conversion 50
5Events in the last thirty five years of his life 73
6Further events till the death of vistasp 77
7Further events till end of Sasanian monarchy82
8Further events till end of Zaraturst’s millennium 94
9Aushedas millennium 107
10Aushedas man’s millennium 112
11Soshans and the renovation 166
Dinkard Book V 119
1Kai Loharasp at Jerusalem and descent of the religion 119
2Parentage birth and life of Zaratust future apostels 122
3Events after vistasp;s conversion and in later times 126
4Descent of the Iranians the tribe having a gyemara127
Selections of Zad Sparam
12Two Old Legends of Spendarmad and of the Hero Stro133
13Parentage of Zaratust138
14Dempons try to injure him before and at his birth140
15Five Karap Brother opposed to Zaratust and his four brothers143
16One Karap tries to kill zaratust five times 144
17Another Foretells his glorious destiny147
18His Father disagrees with him148
19And he disagrees with his father and the chief karap149
20Legends indicative of his good disposition 151
21His going to confer with authoramzd154
22His Conferences with the archangels 159
23Dates of conversion births and deaths163
24Five Dispositions of priests and ten admonitions 167

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