Book is based on the latest syllabus of Rachana Sharir proposed by CCIM BAMS course.
Some extra chapters are added to describe fundamentals of Anatomy. The book is comprehensive in terms of subject matter to help PG students and research scholars.
As per UG Syllabus of Rachana Sharir topics of similar content and correlative study are included in same chapter. For example ‘Asthi Sharir and Osteology’, Sandhi Sharir and Arthrology’, "Tantrika Sharir and Nervous system’Etc.
Dr. Sanjiv Saxena was born in Kanpur City of Uttar Pradesh. There he completed his schooling with honors in both High school and Intermediate examination. Dr. Saxena passed BAMS course from State Ayurvedic College and Hospital Lucknow and secured First position in Merit of Lucknow University. Then he pursued MD in Rachana Sharir from the same college. He has published various papers in National and International seminars and conferences. He received many awards and accolades in his academic. He is fond of writing and desires to serve the students of Ayurveda through his literary work.
With the name and blessings of almighty the book titled ‘COMPREHENSIVE RACHANA SHARIR’ ‘Parallel study of Rachana Sharir with Modern Anatomy’ is being presented for scholars and student of Medical. Sciences. The book is written to fulfill the requirement of having both Ayurvedic as Mopdern literature for the same context at the place with applied approach.
Author has tried his best to compile maximum important references of Ayurveda with it’s explanation in almost all topics along with relevant literature of modern anatomy.
Author personally feels that each and every topic of Rachana Sharir in Ayurveda can’t be correlated with modern anatomy. Therefore Ayurvedic and modern literature are described separately and parallel. Wherever a correlation can be established it is done with proper logical analysis.
In order to maintain the originality Ayurvedic literature is given in Sanskrit and Hindi and Modern in English.
I hope that readers will accept the effort with generosity and give suggestions to improve it further.
Historical Background of Ayurveda
According to historians of medicine it is clear beyond all doubts that science of medicine is classically described in Vedic Texts mainly in ‘Atharvaveda’.
Atharvaveda consists the treasure of that science which is the first recorded literature of human diseases and it’s treatment.
The explainatory and practice of medicine was later on compiled in ‘Samhita Grantha’ There are three main Samhita Grantha as following.
iii-Vagbhat Samhita (Ashtang Samagraha and Ashtang Hridaya)
These are also referred as Greater Triads. Other Samhita grantha are kashyap samhita, Bhel samhita but these are incomplete in their available Manuscript.
In terms of Sharir i.e. conceptual human anatomy and physiology ‘Sushrut Samhita’ is most relevant.
It deals with details of human anatomy based on direct observation by dissection. So it is foundation of principles of surgery which are now a days performed by modern methods. The fundamentals and principles are still the same.
Historical references about Sushrut Samhita
According to available historical references and researches it is concluded that present Sushrut Samhita was compilation compilation completed in four steps.
The fundamental literature rather we can say the manuscript of Sushrut Samhita was compiled by Old Sushrut.
Later on Sushrut, Nagarjuna and Chandratt revised reedited and recompiled the basic text to shape it in the present available form.
But as a matter of fact the real identity and exact period of Sushrut is controversial.
Format of Sushrut Samhita
The Sushrut Samhita is a Sanskrit text attributed to Sushrut.
It is one of three foundational texts of Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine).
The Sushrut Samhita is divided into two parts.
The first is the five section Purva-tantra, and the second is the Uttara-tantra.
Together, the Purva-tantra Uttara-tantra (apart from Salyya and Salakya) describe the sciences and practices of medicine, pediatrics, geriatrics, diseases of the ear, nose, throat and eye, toxicology, aphrodisiacs and psychiatry.
It is divided into five segments and 120 chapters
Sushrut Samhita is divided in to following segments called as “Sthana” consisting specific chapters.
There are additional 66 chapters in “Uttar tantra”.
(It is noteworthy that Agnivesa-tantra, better known as the Charaka Samhita and the Ashtanga Hridayam of Vagbhata, is also divided into 120 chapters)
The text was translated to Arabic as Kitabi-Susrud in the 8th century.
Salient features of Sushrut Samhita
According to above couplet for study of Sharir, Sushruta Samhita is most appropriate.
The Sushrut Samhita comprises 186 chapters, description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources.
Dissection of dead human bodies was first introduced and performed by Sushrut.
He also advocated the dissection for observation of internal anatomy of human body.
That is important for management of diseases specially in surgical procedures.
Plastic surgery was first introduced by Sushrut as in Karnasandhana and nasa sandhana.
The text discusses surgical techniques of making incisions, probing extraction of foreign bodies, alkali and thermal cauterization tooth extraction, excisions, and trocars for draining abscess draining hydrocele and ascitic fluid, the removal of the prostate gland, urethral stricture dilatation, vesiculolithotomy, hernia surgery, caesarian Section, management of haemorrhoids, fistulae, laparotomy and management of intestinal obstruction, perforated intestines, and accidental perforation of the abdomen with protrusion of omentum and the principles of fracture management, Viz., traction, traction, manipulation, apposition and stabilization including some measures of rehabilitation and fitting of prosthetics.
It enumerates six types of dislocations, twelve varieties of fractures, and classification of the bones and their reaction to the injuries, and gives a classification of eye diseases including cataract surgery.
The text describes aetiology, the sings and symptoms of important surgical diseases and those ailments which have a bearing on surgery. The rudiments of embryology and the anatomy of the human body, along with instructions for venesection, the positioning of the patient for each vein. Protection of vital structures (marma) are dealt with in the Sarira-sthana.
This also includes the essentials of obstetrics.
The Chikitsa-sthana describes the principles of management of surgical conditions, including obstetrical emergencies, including chapters on geriatrics and aphrodisiacs.
The Kalpa-sthana is mainly Visa-tantra,dealing with the nature of poisons and their management i.e. toxicology.
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