About the Book
The present text comprising Cintamani Mula and Kanadatippani on the topics of Paksata and Samanyanirukti belongs to the literature of Navya-Navya Samanyanirukti means the general definition of Hetvabhasa i.e., feigned reason formulated by Gangesa Upadhyaya in the Anumana-section of his Tattvacintamani. After this there are sections on specific definitions of feigned reasons like Sadharana Asadharna Anupasamhari, Viruddha Asidha (three varieties), Satpratipaksa and Badha etc. Text of these specific definitions are not covered by the present author under the DRS project of Sanskrit Department R.B.U. and they are published as fascicules by the concerned authority. The aim of Navya-Navya is to formulate a correct definition of a concept free from all sorts of faults like, absurdity (asambhava) over application (ativyapati) and narrowness avyapti etc. The commenctary-works interpret each word and sentence of the basic text and critically explain justification of their inclusion. Sometimes the Commentators invent lacunae in the mother text and formulate modification of the same in their own way. In this regard Kanada Tarkavagisa is very much loyal and faithful to the original author and does not suggest any improvement in the reading of the master work. Herein lies the peculiarity of Kanada’s writings.
Paksata means a peculiar condition (psycho objective) necessary for the emergence of inferential cognition. The aim of the text is not only to frame a fault-free definition of Paksata but also to establish the necessity of acknowledging such a condition in addition to other cause of inference.
Over the ages the six systems of Indian philosophy have been enriched by scholars in the respective system. Of these, there is a marked affinity between Sankhya and Yoga and Nyaya and Vaisesika, The Nyaya and Vaisesika systems of philosophy depend heavily on validation of knowledge through evidence (pramana). It is held that knowledge is acquired through pramana only. In the old school of Nyaya which began with the Nyayasutra of Gautama four pramanas were established which are pratyaksa, anumana, upamana and sabda. That is why in all the sixteen categories of Nyaya philosophy prarnana has been accorded the first position. A lot of discussion and exposition has taken place regarding the precision of prarnanas in the texts of Nyayasastra as also that of Vaisesika. The systems of Vaisesika and Nyaya fused together to create what is now known as Navya-Nyaya. It was given an authentic form by Gangesa Upadhyaya of Mithila in the 14th century. His magnum opus is named Tattvacintamani, This text is based on the first category of Nyayasiitra i.e. Pramana.
The above text is divided into four parts according to four pramanas accepted by the Naiyayikas. It acquired pre-eminent position amongst scholars which led to several commentaries and sub-commentaries being written. The Navya-Nyaya School originated in Mithila but flourished in Bengal and most of the acknowledged scholars of this school come from this region. Kanada Tarkavagisa is one such stalwart who is believed to have lived in the second half of the fifteenth century AD. He wrote extensively on Navya-Nyaya. Some were independent texts like Bhasaratnam and Tarkavadarthamafijari. There is lack of unanimity regarding Apasabadakhandanam. It is now believed to be the work of one Kanotka. Kanada wrote a commentary on Gangosa's anumana (inference) section which is called Anumanacintamanitippani. The present text is only a portion of the tippani on the whole of Anumana Khanda.
Paksata forms a major component of the process of inference (anumana). The three attributes of hetu-paksasattva, sapaksasattva and vipaksavyavrtisattva-integral to correct inference depend on the precise definition of paksata. The present text of tippani of Kanada has been taken from a sign le copy of the manuscript available at Bangiya Sahitya Parisad. The Mission will be obliged to scholars if they will provide us with information on any other copy available.
Samanyanirukti is the portion of Tattvacintamani giving the definition of Hetvabhasa. Proper identification of Hetvabhasa is equally, if not more, important than correct. Hetu, for inference to be irrefutable. Two copies of this portion of Tippani were procured by the editor and edited with due diligence.
Dr. Subuddhi Charan Goswami has done a creditable work of presenting this text along with English translation which adds to its usefulness for scholars. He has also given in two appendices the relevant portions of the tikas of Raghunatha Siromani and Mathuranatha.
I do hope Dr. Goswami will someday be able to present the whole text of the tippani to the scholarly world.
The history of Indian philosophy which dates back to a hoary past of Vedic civilization has been gradually developed down the ages. The development was never monolithic, but multifold. A number of philosophical systems, sprang up along which Nyayavaisesika system occupies a special position. This system again gave birth to a significant school, which is known as 'Navya-Nyaya' at the hand of Gangesa Upadhyaya by his monumental work ‘Tattvacintamani’. Gangesa flourished in the 14th century AD in Mithila, but in later period his philosophy flooded Bengal by its overwhelming style of interpretation and language. For last six hundred years, the most significant and original contribution of Bengal in the academic world is Navya-Nyaya, apart from Grammar and Smrti literature.
This 'Preface' neither contemplates to paint a comprehensive picture . of the Bengal's contribution to Navya-Nyaya. Scholars can gather information from other sources i.e., in the books, depicting the history of Indian philosophy written by scholars both in English and Bengali.
But, as a matter of fact, we must reiterate that for last six hundred years, if Bengal had gifted anything substantial to the academic world, anything intrinsic, certainly it is the new system of Indian philosophy, better known as Navya-Nyaya. Based on the new system, propagated by 'Gangesa and his son Vardhamana, tens of hundreds of texts, commentaries, sub-commentaries, annotations, have been composed; thousands of scholars spent their lives and brain to understand the logic, new terminology and a complete new style of Sanskrit language. Navadwipa once was recognized as the 'Oxford of East'. Benaras, the second home for the Bengali scholars, became the seat of learning. Dinesh Chandra Bhattacharya, in his stupendous work. Bangalir Saraswata A vadan; 'Bange Navyanyaya Charcha' (published 1358 B.S., second edition 1414 B.S.), made a scientific effort through field- study to prepare a history of the Navya-Nyaya and the Naiyayikas of Bengal, who resided in undivided Bengal and Beneras. Interested persons may get an idea from his book, what Bengal contributed for this special branch of knowledge. But unfortunately, the huge corpus of knowledge, due to its hard outer coverage in the form of cryptic language, is getting fast out of sight. About its peculiar language, even Gadadhara, the Naiyayika of Bengal, sarcastically commented "janesu jadacetasam taruna eva karnajvara" (To the people who are not wel1versed, it appears to them to be an acute ear-fever). The European Pandit Ward, who had a deep regard for Navya-Nyaya school and who commented-"Indeed in philosophy, the Hindus have perhaps excelled both the Ancients and Modems", could feel it 'a system of wrangling and contention about names and terms', Cowell, who learnt Navya- Nyaya from Mahesha Nyayaratna, failed to understand the intrinsic logomachy of this system and commented, it is a fruitless effort of getting true knowledge at the end. It is, according to him, 'misdirected the zeal and useless the knowledge', he understood-' it's sole end is vicara', (vitanda). A.B. Keith does not differ much from Cowell, when he writes-"a vast mass of perverted ingenuity worthy of the most flourishing days of medieval scholarsticism" (Indian Logic and Atomism, p. 35). Even Iswarchandra Vidyasagar or Rabindra Nath Tagore, the best fruits of Indian Renaissance did not have a favourable outlook on Navya-Nyaya.
In spite of all odds, a lean and thin flow of teacher-taught tradition continued on Navya-Nyaya throught out Bengal till 20th century AD. It is a matter of fact that thousands of manuscripts written on Navya- Nyaya have gone out of sight, the number of scholars in this field is fast decaying. In Bengal, Professor Ananta Lal Thakur may be the last stalwart in this field after Phani Bhusan Tarkavagish. Here lies the basic importance of editing such books.
Let us now come back to the main issue. Tattvacintamani by Gangesa, who is the chief architect of Navya-Nyaya System, is divided into four parts. Pratyaksa (perception), Anumiti (inference), Upamiti (analogy) and Sabda (verbal testimony). Pratyaksa portion is divided into 12 Sub-sections, but the largest section is Anumiti in 17 sub-sections. Upamiti is comparatively small in size and Sabda section is again comprised of 16 sub-sections under different titles. Gangesa was born some 600 years back in Mithila and thenceforth the era of Navya- Nyaya begins. The largest corpus of Navya-Nyaya texts begins with Gangesa's, Tattvacintamani. The editor of this text Professor Subuddhi Charan Goswami has given elaborate description about these sections and sub-sections in the Introduction.
Kanada Tarkavagisa may be regarded as one of the most prominent neo-logicians of this school who belonged probably to the 16th century AD. His birthplace was Khanakul-Krishnanagar of Bengal (See D.C. Bhattacharya, Bange Navya-Nyaya Charcha, pp. 108-11). He was the disciple of Janakinath Bhattacharya Chudamani. Among his works, Bhasaratna has been edited by Kalipada Tarkacharya from Calcutta. But his chief work is a commentary on Anumiina-section of Gangesa Udadhyaya. The text is known as 'Anumanacintamanitippani which is so far unpublished. The record of D.C. Bhattacharya (see p. 109fn.), shows that there are three copies of this text of which two copies are in the possession of Asiatic Society. The editor of this text, Professor Goswami, informs that in these two copies of the text 'paksata-section' is wanting. He discovered in the collections of 'Government Sanskrit College', Kolkata, prepared the text on the basis of a single copy of the manuscript. Aufrecht's Catalogus Catalogorum and New Catalogus Catalogorum (Madras), do not supply any extra information on this text. (Professor Goswami has given detail of the manuscript in his 'Introduction'.
The present edition comprises two portions of Anumana- cintamanitippani of Kanada. The first part i.e. paksata section is based on a single copy and the second part on Anumana is on two aforesaid copies, preserved in Asiatic Society. The general definition of Hetvabhasa of Gangesa goes by the title Samanyanirukti and thus the commentary of Kan ad a is also known by the title Samanyaniruktitippani'. The present text is the commentary on the definition of Hetvabhasa of Cintamani. The editor has clarified the matter in his 'Editorial Note'. Thus it is a text of two parts clubbed within a single cover.
Key to Transliteration
Paksatacintamani of Cangesa with Kanadatippani
Cintamani Mula and Tippani
Index of References
Samanyanirukti of Cangesa with Kanadatippani
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