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Post Jagannatha Literary Criticism in Sanskrit (18th and 19th Centuries)

Post Jagannatha Literary Criticism in Sanskrit (18th and 19th Centuries)
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Item Code: NAK402
Author: Dr. M. Sivakumara Swami
Publisher: Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation
Language: English
Edition: 2009
Pages: 572
Cover: Paperback
Other Details: 10.0 inch X 6.5 inch


Sanskrit Literary Criticism (Alankarasastra) has a long history as a Discipline. It has a glorious heritage from Bharata's Natyasastra, the first available work dealing with some concepts of Sanskrit Literary Criticism, besides being an encyclopaedia on Dance, Drama and Music. It has passed through a period of original contribution from the times of Bhamaha, the author of KavyalaIikara (6th century A.D.) down to the times of Anandavardhana, the author of Dhvanyaloka (9th - 10th centuries A.D.). This was the period when the major schools of Sanskrit Literary Criticism (including Dramaturgy), such as Alankara School (Bhamaha, Dandin, Udbhata and Rudrata), Riti-Guna School (Dandin and Vamana), Rasa-Dhvani School Anandavardhana and his commentator Abhinavagupta, Vakrokti School (Kuntaka) and Anumana School (Mahimabhatta). This was followed by a period of consolidation of the Schools, Rasa- Dhvani School in particular, which was enriched by the contributions of Mammata, Hemacandra, Vidyanatha and Vidyadhara. Then came a period of the treatment of individual concepts, of which the Alankara and Rasa received major and elaborate elucidation. The works of Ruyyaka and Appayyadiksita belong to this period. Jagannatha, another major author of this period, treated all the concepts of Sanskrit Literary Criticism except Dramaturgy and brightened them with some of his flashes of original thinking. It is the continuation of this tradition that we find in this work entitled Post-Jagannatha Literary Criticism in Sanskrit. It evaluates critically the entire tradition of Alankarasastra and passes it on to the coming generations.

I have great pleasure in congratulating the author of this work, Dr. M. Sivakumara Swamy, one of the scholars who are honoured by Rastrapatiprasasti, who has made commendable efforts to think and plan out the study of the works of 18th and 19th centuries most of which have been manuscripts. He has been so thorough in the subject as to trace and develop the concepts in their historical perspective. In a bid to bring out some research works other than Vedanta for a change, this work of Dr. M. Sivakumara Swamy on Alankarasastra has been chosen for publication through our Foundation. I sincerely hope this will be useful to scholars and research students and also to those who are interested in the Sastra.



I have great pleasure in writing a foreword to this work of Dr. M. Sivakumara Swamy, viz., Post-Jagannatha Literary Criticism in Sanskrit, which was originally his Ph.D. thesis. It is a critical study of the period of literary criticism in Sanskrit which is not much known except a few authors, of the period whose works have been published. A few authors were known only through references in other works. The general feeling among the scholars has been that the composition of Alankara works has almost come to an end with Appayya diksita and Jagannatha. The present work shows the continuity of this tradition. It is not a mere continuity but a continuity which is enriched by the contributions of such scholars as Venkamatya (the author 'of Alankaramanidarpana), Narasimha (the author of Nanjarajayasobhusana), Acyutaraya Modak (the author of Sahityasara), Cavali Ramasudhi (the author of Sahityacintamani), Visvesvara (the author of Alankarakaustubha), Venkatacarya (the author of Rasacandrika), Srikrsna' Parakalayati (the author of Alankaramanihara), Sri Krsnavadhuta Pandita (the author of Mandaramarandacampu, etc.), Kasi Laksmanakavi (the author of Srisahabhupalankara), to mention only a few. Some authors who are so far unheard of have been brought to limelight in this work.

This work has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter called "A retrospect of Sanskrit poetics" gives a constructive account of the schools and concepts of Alankarasastra (Poetics and Dramaturgy) from Bharata to -Jagannatha as a background to the study of this Post-Jagannatha period. This is apt to bridge the gap between the Jagannatha's period and the post-Jagannatha period reaching up to the 20th century A.D. and to assess the exact contribution of that period to the field of Alankarasastra. Dr. Swamy has rightly observed in his introduction that since the authors of this period "have come so late as 18th or 19th century A.D., they have not much to add to the fundamentals of Alankarasastra. Yet the value of their contribution cannot be underestimated". He has noted the value of their contributions in certain directions (vide pp. 4-6).

The second chapter entitled "Yasobhusana type of works covering the entire field of Alankarasastra" has taken up the study of the Yasobhusanas dealing with all topics of Poetics and Dramaturgy. Nanjarajayasobhusana of Narasimha has been the major work of this period modelled on the Prataparudrayasobhusana of Vidyanatha. Ramavarmayasobhusana of Sadasiva Makhin, Alankaramanjari of unknown authorship, Kavyakalanidhi of Krsnasudhi, Sahityakallolini of Bhasyakaracarya, Sahityacintamani of Cavali Ramasudhi, Sahityakalpadruma of Kolluri Rajasekhara and Apparayayasascandrodaya of Anivilla Venkatasastrin, are the other works studied in this chapter. These Yasobhusanas form the majority among the works of this period of study.

The non-Yasobhusana type of works dealing with all topics of Poetics belonging to the 18th and 19th centuries have been studied in two chapters, i.e., III and IV, separately. Venkamatya's Alankaramanidarpana has been the major work of the 18th century and Acyutaraya Modak's Sahityasara has been that of the 19th century. After dealing with Alankaramanidarpana in detail, other works of 18th century such as Kavyendusekhara of Kamaraja Diksita, Alankarasara of Balakrsnabhatta, Alankarendusekhara of Narasimhacarya, etc., have been studied. Again after making a detailed study of Acyutaraya's Sahityasara, the major work of 19th century A.D., other works such a Mandaramarandacampu and other Alankarasastra works of Krsnavadhuta Pandita, Srngarasara and Srngarasaravali of Venkatanarayana, etc., have been studied with a view to highlighting their special contributions.

Of the two sections of the V chapter, works of the type of Yasobhusanas dealing with Alankaras only are studied in the first section and those of Non-Yasobhusana type dealing with Alankaras and others dealing with Rasa, Sabdavrttis, Citrakavya, Kavisamaya, Dasarupakas, etc., are studied in the second section. Among the Yasobhusanas dealing with Alankaras, Srikrsna Parakalayati's Alankaramanihara has been the major work studied and among the Non-Yasobhusanas dealing with only Alankaras, the major works have been those of Visvesvara Pandita. Among the works dealing with individual topics other than Alankara, those dealing with Rasa form the majority. Among these, Rasacandrika of Visvesvara Pandita and Rasacandrika of Srisaila Venkatacarya have been major works. Then among the works that deal with other topics, Asadhara's Kovidananda and Trivenika (on Sabdavrttis), three Sabdabhedanirupanas (on Sabdavrttis), Kavindrakarnabharana of Visvesvara Pandita (on enigmas and citrabandhas) and Kavisamayakallola of Anantaraya (on Kavisamayas), are noteworthy.

The VI chapter gives an assessment of the contribution of this period to Alankarasastra. This assessment is made under the topics such as Kavyalaksana, Kavyaprayojana, Sabdavyapara, Dhvani, Rasa, Guna, Alankara, Vrtti, Riti, Sayya, Paka, etc. Some of the flashes of this assessment prompt me to refer to them. To avoid prolixity I give only one or to such instances. Readers can find them for themselves. One instance is that of the definition of Kavya given by Narasimha in his Nanjarajayasobhusana. Here Narasimha emphasises that the expression (sabda) and thought (artha) should be in conformity with extra-ordinary poetic convention (Kavisamaya). It is in the concept Kavisamaya that we find the flash of Narasimha's thought in including not only the poetic conventions established in the usage of poets but also the aspects of poetic creation of the individual poets though Vyanjanavyapara. The second instance of flash of thought is found in the widening of the scope of the term Guna to include all the salient sources of charm such as Madhuryadigunas, Rasa, Laksana, Riti, Alankara and Vrtti by considering it as 'the principle of poetic charm itself (rasikahladakatva)', This conception of Guna enables Acyutaraya to make the definition of Kavya very succinct with only two adjectives of 'adosatva' and 'sagunatva'. What was then Alankara to Dandin and Vamana is now Guna to Acyutaraya.

I conclude this Fore-word by referring to the topic 'new horizons of research' flashed by Dr. Swamy at the end of the assessment chapter. With his experience as the teacher and the research guide for more than three decades, he has made some valuable suggestions for teaching and research in the field of Sanskrit. The teachers and researchers are well advised to remember those and grow on their path of Sanskrit studies.



Alankarasastra has a fairly long and varied course of history covering an extensive literature of more than 1500 years. During the period between Yaska's Nirukta, which gives the first theory of Upama with special reference to its Vedic form, and Bharata's Natyasastra, which gives the first outline of poetics and a sufficiently developed theory of drama, Alankarasastra was gathering its form to assume the status of an independent discipline. The outline of poetics which Bharata gives is the first framework of the discipline as it existed in the earliest known phase of its history, Bhamaha, Dandin, Vamana and Anandavardhana represent the second and most creative phase of its history. The phase reaches the highest peak of its glory with the formulation of the Dhvani theory by Anandavardhana. The poetic theories emphasizing the paramount importance of Alankaras, Guna and Riti preceded the Dhvani theory, which in turn absorbed all the good points from them and reshuffled the older concepts of Alankara, Guna, Riti, etc., in a new perspective with Dhvani as the central element of poetic charm (Atman). This was followed by the third and scholastic phase working out the details of the Dhvani theory and giving a scholarly basis to it. Abhinavagupta and Mammata are the great writers of this phase. Mammata, in particular, met the fresh challenges from the rival theories of Dhvani, viz., Vakrokti theory of Kuntaka and Anumana theory of Mahimabhatta, and reaffirmed the soundness of the Dhvani theory. The Vakrokti and the Anumana theories receded to the background for want of followers. The Dhvani theory, which was accepted by all the writers after Mammata, is the only living and widely accepted theory of poetics in Sanskrit. Ruyyaka and Appayyadiksita, who deal mainly with Alankaras, and Vidyanatha, Visvanatha, -Jagannatha, etc., who deal with all the aspects of poetics, have accepted it and developed their special points within its comprehensive framework. This is the rich heritage which the Alankara works of Post-Jagannatha period (18th and 19th centuries) have inherited.

The studies of Alankarasastra from Bharata to -Jagannatha in modern times, started with the two pioneering works, viz., Dr. P.V. Kane's 'History of Sanskrit Poetics' (1923) and Dr. S.K. De's 'Sanskrit Poetics' (1923). (These works were later revised and published in 1951 and 1960 respectively). These books led many scholars to the study of numerous works on Alankarasastra and to produce books and papers dealing with its several aspects, the most notable of which are Dr. V. Raghavan's 'Some concepts of Alankarasastra', 'The Number of Rasas', 'Sringaraprakasa', Dr. A. 'Shankaran's 'Theories of Rasa and Dhvani', Dr. P.C. Lahiri's 'Theories of Riti and Guna' and Dr. K. Krishna Murthy's 'Dhvanyaloka' (translation and study) 'Dhvanyaloka and its critics'. Prof. M. Hiriyanna's articles now collected in 'Art Experience', 'Sanskrit studies', etc., and the various articles of Dr. V. Raghavan such as 'Abhinava's polimathy', 'Riti and Guna in 'Agnipurana', 'Writers quoted in Abhinavabharati', etc., have enriched the field of modern studies on Alankarasastra from Bharata to -Jagannatha. Dr. Kane and Dr. De approach the subject from the historical point of view and present a detailed account of the major; works and authors from Bharata to-Jagannatha. They have also given a brief account of the minor works on the subject belonging to several centuries. Dr. V.Raghavan's 'SrIigaraprakasa' is a valuable contribution to Alankarasastra not only because it gives a detailed account of Srngaraprakasa, an encyclopaedic work on poetics, but also because it gives the historical development of the various concepts of Alankarasastra as a perspective background to the study of the concepts in this magnum opus of Bhoja. The other works mentioned above present the conceptual development of the different aspects of Alankarasastra.

As regards the works on poetics of 18th and 19th centuries, a passing reference to some of these works is made in the books and articles up to the present time. Dr. De has included a brief account of some of these in the chapter X of his 'Sanskrit poetics' Vol. I. Dr. Raghavan has given an account of some Alankara works of this period in his introductions to Srngaramajari of Akbar Saha and Sahendravilasa and in his articles published in various Journals. Further a brief account of the works of this period is scattered in the works like the 'History of Sanskrit Literature' by Prof. M. Krishnamachariar, 'The contribution of Kerala to Sanskrit' by Dr. K. Kunjunni Raja, 'The contribution of Andhra to Sanskrit Literature' by Dr. P. Srirama Murthy and 'Andhra Samsthanamulu Sahityaseva' (Telugu) by Dr. T. Donappa.

The above account of the modern studies of Alankarasastra, with no pretentions to be exhaustive, is apt to draw the attention of the scholars to the fact that more or less a thorough study is made of the Alankara works ranging from early times down to 17th Century A.D., but a full and systematic study of the Alankara works of the Post-Jagannatha period (18th and 19th centuries) is so far not undertaken to bring the study upto-date. Hence, this study is undertaken as an attempt to highlight the contribution of Alankara works and authors of 18th and 19th centuries, constituting the last but not the least phase of Sanskrit Alankarasastra.

The broad outline of the Alankara literature of this period is given here to indicate the scope of this study. On the basis of the information collected from various sources and the consultation of the manuscripts of the different oriental libraries, it is estimated that the number of works is more than 80. Among these, about 30 works are printed and the rest are in manuscripts. Some of these works in manuscripts are noticed in the histories and regional surveys mentioned above. The rest of the works and authors are brought to time light through this study. About 25 works of this period are comprehensive teatises dealing with all topics of Alankarasastra, The rest deal with one or two topics such as Alankaras, Rasa, etc. > Among these, again, works dealing with Alankaras constitute the majority. Works dealing with Rasa come next in number. A few works deal with Sabdavrttis, Enigmatology, Citrakavya, Kavisamaya, etc. Among all these works put together, works of the Yasobhusana from the majority. Thus the works of this period deal with a wide range of topics in Alankarasastra.



  Preface iii
  Foreword vii
  From the author's Desk ix
  Introduction 1
Chapter-I A Retrospect of Sanskrit Poetics 8
Chapter-II Yasobhusana Type of Works Covering the Entire field of Alankarasastra 24
Chapter-III Comprehensive Treatises on Alankarasastra (18th Century A.D.) 104
Chaprter-IV Comprehensive Works on Alankarasastra (19th Century A.D.) 211
Chapter-V Section-I: Works Dealing With Alankaras (yasobhusanas) 291
  Section-II: Works on Alankaras (Non-Yasobhusanas) and other Topics 407
Chapter-VI An Estimation of the Contribution 499
Appendix-I Abbreviations 549
Appendix-2 Index of Alankara Works of 18th amd 19th Centuries 553
Appendix-3 Bibliography 557
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