Epistemology.-of the’ Dvaita school of thought is presented ‘in this: short
Monograph Pramanapaddhati - the Path of Proofs, authored by Sri Jayatirtha..
Epistemology is the science of knowledge that deals with the origin and nature
of cognitive events and their means.
Acarya Madhva, the proponent of the Dvaita school, has explained about.
the epistemology of this new school in his works. Since Madhva’s language,
is profound and the elucidations are scattered over his several works, it is
difficult to comprehend for a novice. Hence, Pramanapaddhati was composed
by his successor of third generation Sri Jayatirtha. The simple and captivating .
Style of this work is sure to ignite the interest in the readers to conduct further
study in detail. This work is not only regarded as a standard textbook of Dvaita ~
studies, but also considered as a basic authentic work in the Dvaita dialectic
This work is rendered into English by Prof Shrinivasa Varakhedi adopting the
Professor Shrinivasa Varakhedi is (born 1973) MA
(Sanskrit and Darsana), Navya-Nyaya Vidvan, and PhD,
presently the Director, Directorate of Karnataka State Sanskrit
Education, Karnataka Samskrit University, Bengaluru. He is a
promising young scholar, who has been putting his efforts to
bridge the gap between traditional and modern academia. He
is one of the pioneers in newly emerged interdisciplinary research field Sanskrit
He gained reputation by his research interests in interdisciplinary areas closely
working with famous institutions such as IIIT and many central universities.
While working as a faculty member in Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati,
he led many projects such as Sanskrit-net, Ramayana Project and NLP related
PG courses. He has edited more than 30 works and published equal number of
research papers in Sanskrit as well as in English. He has penned many articles *
related to Madhva philosophy in Kannada. He has delivered many lecturege.
on invitations from many reputed universities and institutions as a visiting g
Dr Varakhed received Maharshi Bacrayan Vas Samman by the President
Madhva saints and institutions.
Manipal University Press (MUP) is the second offspring of MAHE Trust,
Manipal University being the firstborn. The objectives of MUP include
publishing scholarly, academic outputs such as textbooks, monographs,
chronicles, conference proceedings etc. The translation of Sri Jayatirtha’s
Pramanapaddhati by Dr Shrinivasa Varakhedi is the first offering of the
The Dvaita Philosophy Resource Centre set up under the aegis of Manipal
Centre for European Studies has taken up the challenging task of translating
some of the seminal works of Dvaita philosophers with an intention of
disseminating this knowledge. The University and University Press are
privileged to take up these works, being geographically located in the
heartland of Dvaita. The Centre has been commissioned to translate two
more works, which should be completed soon.
Dr Neeta Inamdar, Head, Manipal Centre for European Studies has been
singularly responsible for bringing out this epistemological work. MUP
places on record its sense of gratitude for her organized effort to get the
book completed on time. Mr Vinod Kamath, Asst Professor, Dept of
Printing Technology, MIT; Mr Chandrashekar Prabhu and Mr K Suresh
of Manipal University were involved intimately in the formation of the
University Press and also the first publication. My sincere thanks to all of
Epistemology of the Dvaita school of thought is fully presented in this short
monograph with the title Pramanapaddhati! - The Path of Proofs, authored by Sri
Jayatirtha. Epistemology, the science of knowledge deals with the origin and nature
of cognitive events and their means. Every school of thought in Indian philosophy
has developed its own theories in this branch of philosophy. The Dvaita school,
being one of the major realistic schools among the Vedanta schools created a
new system of epistemology that was worked out by Acarya Madhva, the founder
of the Dvaita school especially in Pramanalaksana and Anuvyakhyana. In order to
make it available to the novice, Sri Jayatirtha, who composed many commentaries
on the works of Acarya Madhva, wrote this independent monograph that covers
all aspects of the Dvaita epistemology.
Epistemology of realism
The Dvaita school of thought promoted by Acarya Madhva, which flourished in
thirteenth century AD near Udupi in Karnataka, is a realistic school that believes
in the reality of this phenomenon- world and in the supremacy of Lord Visnu.
This tenet of realism requires a different epistemological set up that starts from
a basic premise or axiom, which is "TI exist’. All philosophical inquiries originate
from a living being — a spirit or a soul cognized as "I". This is the first reality
that does not require any proof other than the self. All inquiries will find an end
oy final evaluation of the testimony. This concept of testimony is called Saks7 in
tne Dvaita philosophy, which is the root of all quests and the final judge of all
verifications. The rest are external means of knowledge. The Dvaita school has
ceveloped a unique paradigm for knowledge and its means. There are three types
of knowledge: perceptual, inferential and verbal. The first one being generated by
means of six senses that constitute prominent and independent proof, and later
categories belonging to non-perception cognitive proofs that are considered to be
sependent on perception, yet powerful instruments to achieve knowledge. Thus,
mis work is divided into three major chapters called perception, inference and
verbal testimony, as a compendious yet full treatment of the Dvaita epistemology
in smaller captions. It is true that its discussion on the stand points of other
schools on various topics and their criticism are not in detailed form, yet this is
precisely what is to be expected here since the work is designed for the novice.
Moreover, the simple and captivating statements in Sutra style employed here
would ignite the interest in reader to conduct further study in detail.
Study of Pramanas and spiritual attainment
The goal of Indian tradition of philosophies is enlightenment of the self and the
realization of ultimate truth. This is attainable only on obtaining proper instruments
of realization. Knowledge constitutes realization. The path of a person’s spiritual
endeavour is completely dependent on the instruments he chooses. Proper
instruments lead him towards the goal in the right direction’. Hence, identifying
and understanding the nature of the knowledge and its instruments are necessary.
However, these efforts to study Pramanas seem to be a pure academic pursuit,
this kind of precise settlement of the nature of Pramanas and a detailed study
of their characteristics are prescribed by Acarya Madhva as a powerful and initial
step in the spiritual path. This kind of inquiry is not kept outside of the spiritual
enterprise. For the same reason, Acarya Madhva has given special attention to
elaborate discussion of the Pramanas and after having defined and classified
the Pramdnas, he has thrown light on the defects of the notions about the
Pramanas proposed by other opponents in his various works. This whole and
complete system of the Dvaita epistemology has a noted place among neo
Indian philosophical dialectics, for its unique and original notions and technically
sound presentations. This status was possible only by the contributions of
Sri Jayatirtha, who brought this to light through his extraordinary expositions.
Pramana — what it is?
The central theme Pramdana is borrowed from the Sastric and common world as
well. This notion includes knowledge and its instruments. The definition must
cover the entire concept without leaving any component. Hence, Pramana is
defined as Yathartham. Pramana is that, which apprehends an object as it is.
Pramana is classified into two categories; Kevalapramana, the primary proof and
Anupramana, the secondary proof. Knowledge apprehends its object directly by
its nature, whereas, instruments like sense organs do get the objects through th
knowledge they generate. Apprehension is the nature of cognition. Knowledge t
the central point of this inquiry of Pramana. Other factors of Pramd, the knowledge
are Pramata, Prameya and Pramana.
Book's Contents and Sample Pages
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