A Nuclear Strategy for India

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Item Code: IDE623
Author: Rear Admiral & Raja Menon
Publisher: Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Language: English
Edition: 2000
ISBN: 0761994610
Pages: 316
Cover: Paperback
Other Details 8.5" X 5.5"
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Book Description

From the Jacket:

This topical, and important book comes at a time when India's position on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has aroused controversy in international undergoing significant changes, and when the world is taking rapid technological strides.

Perhaps the first effort to articulate a coherent nuclear strategy for India, the book begins by providing a framework that rests on a theory of international relations in which the use of force is postulated. Admiral Menon then discusses the experience of Western countries in acquiring tactical nuclear weapons and Indian criticisms of Western nuclear doctrines. This is followed by a discussion of India's journey to acquiring nuclear weapons which presents, for the first time, a coordinated analysis of the roles played by the military, the scientific establishment and diplomats combined with the technological and economic dimensions.

The next two chapters are devoted to strategy. The author introduces quantitative analysis into the nuclear debate as also discusses the little understood phenomenon of the technological pressures which influence the decision to introduce newer weapons. Admiral Menon describes India's arsenal and the rationale behind it and outlines deterrence theory. The book ends by locating India's nuclear strategy in the international environment in the light of the 1998 nuclear test.

This valuable and timely book, will numerous first to its credit, will interest all those interested in the nuclear debate, strategic and military studies, international relations, science and technology studies, and contemporary Indian politics and diplomacy.

About the Author:

Rear Admiral Raja Menon retired in 1994 as the Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Operations) in which job he was responsible for formulating strategy. He is a visiting lecturer at India's foreign Service Training Institute, at the Defence Service Staff College, the Naval Higher Command Course and the National Defence College.


List of Tables10
List of Figures11
List of Abbreviations13
1.International Relations and India's Geopolitical Environment23
The Idealism in Indian Foreign Policy23
Freud vs Marx26
The Status Quo Power and the Revisionist Power27
Politics and Military Power29
Coercive Nuclear Diplomacy32
The Clausewitzian Divide35
2.The Western Narrative: Western Nuclear Theology41
Nuclear Diplomacy41
Early Strategy44
Massive Retaliation and the New Look48
Strategic Vulnerability49
The McNamara Years49
The SIOP, Counter-force and Assured Destruction52
Targeting Policy54
McNamara's Legacy54
Tactical Nuclear Weapons55
Sufficiency and Finite Targeting56
Flexible Targeting and Counter-force II57
PD-59 and Countervailing Strategy57
National Security Decision Directive No. 12 (NSSD-12)59
The Soviet Strategy60
The INF Controversy60
The Irresistable Pull of Technology62
The Lessons for Nuclear Strategy63
3.The Indian Narrative66
Homi Bhabha66
The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and Indian Rare Earths Limited67
India, the USSr and China: The Early Years68
The Beginnings of Rivalry70
The End of Idealism73
Take a Horse to Water75
Alterations of Course with Sarabhai77
A Fork in the Road83
Pokhran I85
The Late Fee for strategic Delays87
The Subcontinental Straw89
A Second Chance92
Diplomacy First, Strategy Second94
The Chinese Accelerate95
Thrashing About in the Bushes100
The Dangers of Nuclear Ambiguity102
Doing Nothing is Doing Something104
The Military Shoot Themselves in the Foot - Again107
The CTBT Imbroglio108
Losing the way111
Leading to Pokhran II113
4.Pure Strategy and Technology122
The Attractions of Technology122
Nuclear Warheads124
The Effects of Nuclear Weapons124
The Technology of Missile Accuracy128
Nuclear Weapons Development136
Yield, Blast and Multiple Warheads138
The Tripwire Strategy and First Use140
The Future of Nuclear Weapons142
Pure Strategy145
Deterrence by Punishment146
Deterrence By Denial146
Arsenals Related to Deterrence148
Defensive Avoidance154
Graduating to Nuclear Strategy155
The Weakness of Massive Retaliation156
Flexible Targeting158
Counter-force, First Strike and Stabiligy163
First Strike and Second Strike164
The Unbreakable Merit of a Second Strike167
The Dangers of Secretiveness167
Counter force and Flexible Response168
Conventional War and Flexible Response169
Non-weaponised Deterrence or Recessed Deterrence171
5.The Indian Arsenal177
The Sino-Indian Political Scenario177
The Old Chinese Arsenal180
The New Chinese Arsenal183
The Chinese Arsenal and India186
The India-China Net Level of Expectation190
The Indo-Pak Nuclear Calculus192
The Merits and Demerits of Pakistan's Nuclear Logic194
The Pakistan Arsenal198
Reducing the Height of the Hill - Nuclear CBMs in South Asia201
Indian Technological Levels206
Fissile Material207
Missile Accuracy209
Warhead Design215
Strategic Surveillance and the Degrading of Deterrence218
The Mobile Launcher versus Silo Argument220
The Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Force for India224
The Indian Nuclear Submarine226
The Indian Missile Force228
The India-Pakistan Scenario, Flexible Response and the Cruise Missile230
6.The Command and Control System235
The Creation of Deterrence241
Transiting from Conventional War to Deterrence242
Managing the Conventional War, Centrally245
Planning the Use of Nuclear Weapons247
The Chiefs of Staff Committee's 'Country' Targeting List248
Nuclear Staff Requirements (NSRs)249
The Alerting System and Deterrence252
Unwarranted or Accidental Nuclear Occurrence256
The Serviceabiligy and Safety of Nuclear Weapons259
Separating Ownership from Control261
The Indian Early Warning System261
Early Warning Over the Sea264
Satellite Surveillance and Early Warning266
The National Command Authority269
Delegation of Authority271
The National Command Post271
The ICBM Launch Control Net278
The SLBM Launch Control Net279
The Hot Line281
7.The Indian Nuclear Strategy and the International Environment284
American Political Views284
The Sanctions288
The CTBT and the Future290
The United States, Bus Diplomacy and Nuclear Restraint292
Lowering the Heights of the Hill296
The Future of Nuclear Weapons Use - The Superpowers297
The European Arsenals300
The Influence of International Agencies301
The Future303
About the Author316

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