About the Books
Book I :
II :Emergence of Organised Nationalism
III :Radical Trends, Nationalism and Mahatma Gandhi
IV :Nationalism : Inter-War Years-I
V : Nationalism : Inter-War Years-II
VI : Nationalism : Inter-War Years-III
VII :Towards a sovereign State
VIII :Independent India : Towards Development
nearly two hundred years the Indian people faced imperialist and colonial
exploitation at the hands of the British. What led to this; What
was its impact? are some questions which the historian
of Modem India has to answer. For arriving at a true understanding of the
transformation of India into a colony it is necessary to have a clear notion of
imperialism and colonialism as a world wide phenomenon. It is equally important
to analyse how these phenomena operated in particular circumstances existent in
our country. The emphasis in this Block is to study these two important aspects
related to modem Indian History. Different theoretical approaches to colonialism
and imperialism have been reviewed in the first two units of this Block. They
take into account the views of both European as well as Indian scholars on the
subject. Unit 1 also takes into account the various stages and nature of
colonialism in India. Unit 2, while dealing with imperialism at a theoretical
level, explains its impact on Indian economy, society and polity.
opposition to British policies, there emerged a national consciousness in the
nineteenth century. Unit 3 deals with the various factors that contributed to
the growth of this consciousness. Resistance to British rule had always existed
but it was in 1857 that a combined effort was made at a national level to
overthrow the British authority. Unit 4 deals with various aspects related to this
great uprising of 1857 which shook the edifice of British rule. An attempt has
also been made, in Unit 5, to familiarize you with the kind of administrative
system that was imposed on India under the colonial regime. The administrative
system was geared up to protect colonial interests and after the uprising of
1857 certain new measures\were introduced to further tighten the colonial hold
In Unit 6, you will see how India became the centre-piece of an imperial system
dominating a major part of Asia. This Unit discusses the frontier and foreign
policies that the British Raj formulated to consolidate its position in Asia.
These policies were obviously governed by the larger interests of British
this print material we also have for you two video programmes entitled "In
Search of History" and "Historiography". There is also an audio
programme entitled "Drain of Wealth". These programmes are available
at the various study centres of the University'
Imperialism and Colonialism : A
Imperialism : Its Effects
The Rise of National
The Revolt of 1857
Colonialism: The New Administrative
System-Pre and Post 1857
Consolidation of the Raj:
Frontier and Foreign Policy
the great uprising of 1857 the British made strenuous efforts to consolidate
their position in India. These efforts were aimed at suppressing any form of
dissent against their rule and looking for allies within the Indian ruling
class. However, resistance to British rule continued, both in an unorganised
and organised form. The first form represented the popular uprisings amongst
peasants, tribals, artisans and the newly emerging working class. Unit 7 deals
with their struggles which were waged at regional levels. Before discussing the
second form i.e. the emergence of organised nationalism, we have Unit 8. In
this Unit some basic questions regarding the social reform movements are
raised. The social reform movements began to gain influence from the early
decades of the 19th century. Did they emerge as a result of the impact of
Western ideas? Did they spring up quite independently? Or did they emerge as a
sort of defence mechanism against the Western challenge? These are some of the
issues raised along with discussing their impact on Indian society and polity. Unit 9 of this block deals with the various aspects related to the
formation of the Indian National Congress (the phase of organised resistance).
It takes into account the various theories about the foundation of the
Congress. Unit 10 tells you about the evolutionary process of the Congress. It
discusses the differences in the perceptions of the moderates and the
extremists as well as their common objectives.
The first major outburst of popular resistance against
the British in the 20th 'Century followed the partition of Bengal. This took the form of Swadeshi Movement.
II deals with the extent and character of the movement: What were the
limitations of the movement? What impact did this movement have on the National
Movement as a whole? We have also prepared for you an audio programme entitled
"Official Attitude Towards Congress
1885-1905". This will be available at the Study Centres of the University.
Uprisings: Second Half of the 19th Century
Reforms in 19th Century' India
National Congress: Formation
National Congress: Moderates and Extremists
of Bengal and the Swadeshi Movement
1 and 2 of this course familiarised you with the exploitative aspects of
colonial rule. You further read how the Indian National Movement was gradually
taking an organised shape against this exploitation. However, we cannot study
the National Movement in isolation from world events because imperialism and
colonialism were a world wide phenomenon. It is' the influence of these events
that you will read in the first three units (12, 13 & 14) of this Block.
12 attempts to familiarise you with Marxist and Socialist thought as it
affected the direction of the National Movement - particularly from 1920
onwards. Tracing the history of Socialism from its earliest stages, the unit
goes on to explain what is meant by scientific socialism.
First World War was a result of the conflict of interest of various imperialist
powers. Unit 13 deals with the causes and consequences of the First World War.
A brief attempt has also been made to acquaint you with the effects of this war
the influence of Marxist ideas the socialist movement had gained strength in
many European countries. But it was only in 1917 that a successful socialist
revolution took place in Russia. Unit 14 describes the causes and consequences
of the Russian Revolution. It also takes into account the impact this
Revolution had on the Indian National Movement.
the closing years of the 19th century there emerged certain radical trends
within the Indian National Movement.
15 discusses the emergence of the revolutionary trend and the actions of early
revolutionaries in India as well as abroad. The emphasis here has been on the
activities of the Ghadar Party. The role of the Home Rule
League and the Home Rule League Movement have also been discussed here.
16 is devoted to the emergence of Mahatma Gandhi on the Indian political scene.
It takes into account his struggle against the racist regime in South Africa
and his interaction with the peasants and workers struggles at regional levels
in India. Finally this unit seeks to inform you about the ideology of Mahatma
Gandhi, and how this ideology was put into action by him. In this unit we have
also discussed the agitation against the Rowlatt Act and the Jalianwala incident.
this print material we also have an audio programme related to unit 15. This
will be available at the various study centres of IGNOU.
and Socialist Thought
First World War: Causes and Consequences
Russian Revolution: Causes, Course and Significance
Trends, Ghadar Party and Home Rule League
Gandhi: Emergence in Indian Politics and his Ideology
Block 2 of this Course we discussed how the Indian National Movement took an
organised shape. Gradually the demands of the National Movement increased and
in Block 3 you have been introduced to certain events in the iriternational
field which had their impact on the Indian National Movement. You have also
seen how, with the emergence of Gandhi, the element of mass mobilisation was
gradually introduced into the National Movement. In this Block we deal with the
various aspects of the National Movement during the inter war years.
17 deals with Constitutional Reforms between 1892 and 1920. This unit
introduces you to the various Acts which were passed by the British Parliament
to bring about constitutional changes in India. The Unit
deals with the factors responsible for these constitutional reforms; the main
provisions of the Acts and the impact of these reforms on India.
18 discusses the Non-Cooperation and the Khilafat Movements. We introduce you
to the factors responsible for launching these two movements; the shape which
these movements took; the response of masses to these movements and the impact
of these movements on the National Movement as a whole.
19 and 20 are devoted to Reform Movements at regional levels. But at the same
time they go on to show how certain regional movements came to be linked up
with the National Movement. Unit 19 discusses the Akali Movement. It takes into
account the social evils existent in the Sikh Society and the struggle for
reforms. At the same time it goes on to discuss the Akali Movement which was
directed against the British and had links with the National Movement.
discusses the Non-Brahmin Movement in Western and South-East India. It takes
into account the social and cultural struggle against the imposition of British
ideas as well as the challenges to the traditional social order of Indian
the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement, there emerged a new trend in
national politics which led to the formation of the Swaraj Party.
21 discusses the formation of this party; its objectives, aims and programmes;
the methods adopted by the Swarajists; their work in the legislatures, and
ultimately the factors responsible for the decline of the Sawraj Party. In this
unit we have also taken into account the constructive work done by the
Swarajists. This includes their work-in relation to the propagation of Khadi
and fight against untouchability, etc. Finally in Unit 22 an attempt has been
made to familiarise you with the communal problems upto 1939. This unit starts
with a theoretical discussion of the meaning of communalism and its components.
Then it goes on to discuss the various aspects related to this problem like the
factors responsible for the emergence of communalism and its impact, etc.
during the course of National Movement.
and Khilafat Movements: 1919-1922
Non-Brahmin Movement in Western and Southern India
Swarajists and Constructive Work: 1922-29
of Communalism up to the Second World War
this Block an attempt has been made to familiarise you with the various aspects
of the Indian National Movement during the 1920s and the 1930s.
23 deals with the impact of literature on the Freedom Movement. Literature
played a prominent role in creating an awareness in
Indian Society not only in relation to existent social evils, but served as an
impetus for national liberation as well. It is not possible to take into
account the literature of all the languages that played a role in the National
Movement. For the purposes of convenience, the literature of only three
languages has been taken into account.
Unit 24 we discuss the revolutionary and terrorist movement in the late 1920s.
Here an attempt has been made to describe the objectives and ideology of the
Revolutionary Organisations and how they underwent ideological transformation.
It also takes into account the origin and nature of Revolutionary Organisations
and goes on to discuss the factors responsible for the decline of Revolutionary
second mass movement was launched by the Congress in 1930. Unit 25 describes
the reasons for launching the Civil Disobedience Movement. It takes into
account the response of various sections towards the movement as well as the
pattern of response in the different regions. It also analyses the Gandhi-Irwin
Pact; suspension of the movement; and its later phase.
socialist ideas were emerging within the Congress and Unit 26 attempts to
familiarise you with the role of Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose in
propagating these ideas within and outside the Congress.
Unit 27 we discuss the emergence and growth of the Communist-Party of India. It
takes into account the limitation of the Communist Movement and at the same
time goes on to discuss its influence on the Working Class and Peasant
Movements. This Unit also deals with the formation of the Congress Socialist
Party, its programme, and the impact it had on national politics.
28 deals with the growth of Trade Unions and Peasant Movements during the 1920s
and 1930s. It discusses the problems faced by the Working Class and the
Peasants. It describes the attempts made by them to organise themselves and
kinds of movements launched by them.
Movement and Nationalist Literature
and Terrorist Movement: Bhagat Singh and Chittagong Armoury Raid
Disobedience Movement - 1930 – 1934
National Congress - Socialist Ideas: Role of Nehru and Bose
of Left: Communist Party of India and Congress Socialist Party
of Trade Union and Peasant Movement: 1920s - 1930s
Block starts with an attempt to familiarise you with the process of
Constitutional Reforms during 1920-1935. Unit 29 seeks to examine the various
constitutional aspects related to the functioning of Dyarchy in the provinces.
Subsequently it deals with the attempts made by Indians for constitutional
reforms: appointment of the Simon Commission and the Round Table Conferences.
It also deals with the various aspects related to the Act of 1935 and its
criticism by the Congress.
emerged a debate within the Congress whether or not to contest the elections,
and again after victory the question was whether to form ministries or not. In Unit 30. We have dealt with these aspects, and also the
functions and limitations of the Congress Ministries.
Indian Capitalist had their own perception of Nationalism and Unit 31 deals
with the growth of Indian Capitalism and the role played by Capitalists in the
Freedom Struggle was being fought in the British Indian Provinces, but the
people residing in the princely states were subject to all kinds of
exploitation without any democratic rights. As a result of the Freedom Struggle
popular struggles emerged in the princely states and in Unit 32 we have
September, 1939, the 2nd World War started and this had a direct
bearing on India. India was dragged into the War against her wishes and the Congress
strongly protested over this. In Unit 33 we have attempted to familiarize you
with the causes of this War, the course of this war took and its consequences.
of 1937 and Congress Ministries
Growth of Indian Capitalism, the Capitalist Class and the Freedom Struggle
Struggles in the Princely States
War II: Causes, Course and Consequences
this Block we attempt to familiarise you with the political events and currents
which ultimately forced the British to quit India and led to the emergence of a
34 explains the attitude of Indians towards the Second World War, and how
ultimately, the Congress launched the Quit India Movement. It goes on to
explain the spread of the Movement, responses of the people towards it, the
repressive measures adopted by the British and the overall impact of the
Movement on India's struggle for independence. This Unit also takes into
account the armed struggle waged by the Indian National Army against the
British, and the importance of this struggle.
35 deals with two inter-related themes. Firstly, it goes on to explain the
negotiations held between the British and the various Indian political parties
to solve constitutional deadlocks, and find a solution for India's
independence. Secondly, it takes into account the popular struggles waged by
the people at regional levels during 1945-47.
this time Communalism had emerged as a great force in Indian politics, and was
proving to be the greatest hurdle in the transfer of power to a United Indian
Government. In Unit-36 we have attempted to familiarise you with the role
played by communal forces, and how this ultimately led to the partition of the
independence of India was a great event concerning not only India, but the
whole world. This was because it unleashed the process of de-colonisation all
over the world. But one must remember, that this
independence had a drawback, in that it led to the partition of the country.
Unit 37 we have discussed the process of establishment of a Democratic Government
in India. This Unit takes into account the constitutional advances made in this
field, the role of the Constituent Assembly and the prominent features of the
The Unit on the role of women in India's Freedom Struggle has been deleted.
Nationalism During World War-II: Quit India Movement and INA
and the Partition of British India
of a Democratic Polity
last Block (Block VII) we discussed how India attained independence. The
attainment of independence for India was a major event related not only to
India but for all the exploited colonies as such. From-here
onwards started the process of decolonisation all over the world.
were many problems which the leadership of independent India had to solve in
order to build a strong country. The leadership took up the challenge and took
the people in confidence for tackling various issues. In this Block we deal
with some of the major post-1947 problems and the methods adopted to tackle
them. A major task was to accomplish the industrial development of India. In
Unit 38 we discuss the industrial structure of India at the time of
independence, its weaknesses and constraints. The unit goes on to discuss the
role of planning in industrial development and how the Five Year plans were put
into operation. It also discusses the achievements and limitations of
industrial development. Unit 39 discusses the problems in the field of agrarian
relations, the planning for land reforms and the social implications of land
reforms. The abolition of the Zamindari system was a major achievement and this
has also been dealt with in the Unit. Unit 40 discusses the evolution of the
Indian foreign policy (1947-64).
independence India had no independent foreign policy. The British Government
persuaded a foreign policy which safeguarded imperialist interests. The
Government of free India adopted an independent foreign policy - a policy which
aimed at safeguarding the interests of India based on the principles of peaceful
also takes into account the relations of India with its neighbours as well as
with super powers of the world. The unit also discusses the non-aligned
movement and the efforts made by India in the field of disarmament.
41 discusses at theoretical level, the origin and evolution of secularism. it also deals with the way secularism functions in
independent India. However, all the above aspects mentioned take into account
the period between 1947 and 1964.
Planning and Industrialization
Planning and Land Reforms in
Foreign Policy of India
The Theory and Practice of
Secularism in India 1947-1964
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