Mahanarayana Upanisad

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Item Code: IDG466
Author: Translated by Swami Vimalananda
Language: (with Accented Text) Introduction, Word to Word Meaning, Translation, Critical and Explanatory Notes
Edition: 2022
ISBN: 8178231301
Pages: 380
Cover: Paperback
Other Details 7" X 4.9"
Weight 240 gm
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Book Description

Publishers' Note:

The Upanisads are the culmination of the Vedas. Therefore they are known as the Vedanta. The religious message given by Swami Vivekananda was based on the Vedanta. The Swamiji urged his followers to popularise the thoughts treasured in the Upanisad at home and abroad. Bearing this idea in mind the second president of this Math started the Upanisad Series thirty-five years ago. Each Upanisad belonging to this Series contains the text in bold Devanagari type, word-by-word meaning, translation based on tradition, Introduction briefly summarizing the subject matter, and elaborate Notes. About a dozen Upanisads are specially illuminated by the superb Commentary of Sri Sankaracarya, who lived over one thousand years ago. They are the most authoritative Upanisads; and eleven of them are now made available in this Series. Most of them have undergone many editions and reprints, and have gained popularity in several parts of the world. Heartened by this wide welcome given to the Upanisad Series, we now publish the Mahanarayanopanisad which, as far as we know, has not yet been translated into English fully and with complete explanation.

The special importance of this text, which is counted as part of the Krsnayajurveda, to the religious Hindu is perhaps unequalled by any other work of its class. We have therefore endeavored to bring out a suitable edition of this abstruse text with aids for understanding its traditional import. An interpretation of the text in easy Sanskrit is a new feature of this publication. This is specially added with a view to help those readers who know only Sanskrit and not English. It will also render the received meaning clearer to those users of the translation who possess some knowledge of Sanskrit.

Much religious material has been digested into the critical and explanatory Notes. This is indented to meet the needs of those who value this sacred text particularly for its spiritual and devotional use. The practice of putting notes on words indicated by superior figures was the custom in the preceding members of the Series. It has been given up here in order to make the reading of the explanatory Notes smooth and continuous. This Upanisad together with its preceding Prapathaka-divided into Siksa - Ananda-Bhrgu-Vallis-is chanted solemnly on special religious occasions. So the text is given here with accent marks in order to facilitate its recital. This will be welcomed by those who have no long training in the customary Vedic recitation.

Ramakrishna Math, Madras
March, 1957


Introduction to the First Edition:

MODERN investigations have revealed that the 2600 million people on this globe speak 2796 different languages and dialects belonging to different families of speech. Of these those that have a long literary past and are still influencing the thought of millions of people are not very many. The collection of hymns, litanies and prayers, under the comprehensive term Vedas, transmitted by oral tradition for as the oldest literature available for the purpose of studying the religious thoughts exercising a considerable influence over the people of a significant part of Asia for many millenniums. Those languages which have preserved past thoughts in literary form, either as written records or oral traditions, alone have been a recognizable power in the evolution of the intellectual, moral and spiritual life of mankind. The scattered splinter-speech communities have not produced any literary heirloom exemplify; and, consequently, they have not made any deep impression on human civilization. The dialects, which have sustained the intercourse of many small groups of have changed and even disappeared without a vestige. The literature preserved in the Vedas through the religious fervour of a highly sensitive people who paid the greatest attention to the careful training of the ear for sound, for rhythm, speech melody, and precision of grammar uncontaminated by local idioms, stands almost unique in the history of human culture. Today the study of the Vedas has, therefore, attracted the attention and interest of people in various parts of the world.

An account of the nature and division of the Vedas will be found in the introduction to the Isavasyopanisad included in the Upanisad Series published by the Ramakrishna Math. This publication is the twelfth in the Series. In the collection of One-hundred-and-eight Upanisads, published several times from Bombay and other places, two works are included with the title Narayanopanisad. Of these the longer one includes a variety of subjects of great importance in the daily observances of a religious Hindu. It is accepted as a part of the Krsnayajurveda and is distinguished generally by the designation Mahanarayanopanisad . The same Upanisad is known also as Yajniki-upanisad on the ground that Yajnatma Narayana is considered to be the seer of this part of the Veda. Like the other Vedas the Yajurveda is divided into samhita and Brahmana. The Taittiriya recension of its has the Taittiriya-ranyaka as an extension of the brahmana. The Taittiriya-ranyaka according to Sayanacarya has ten prapathakas of which this Upanisad forms the last one. Bhattabhaskara who wrote a Commentary on the whole of Yajurveda, anterior to Sayana, substitutes the term prasna for the division heading prapathaka, and calls this as the last prasna. Both the exegetists accept the name Yajnikyupanisad.




PRAJAPATI: God Transcendent and Immanent 1
The Ultimate Divine Principle: called Paramesvara or the Prajapati 2
Aksarabrahman-The Self-supporting Final Cause of the Universe 4
Seers Realise the All-pervading Divine in the Ether of Their Heart 5
The Order of Cosmic Evolution 7
The Omniform Nature of the All-Sustaining Brahman 9
Rtam and Satyam; He alone is All Gods 10
Prajapati as the Divine Purusa and the Source of Time With all Its Divisions 11
The Divine Being is Called Mahad-Yasas; has None Above Him; and is Limitless 13
Immortality Attained through Meditation on Him in the Heart 15
Uttaranarayananuvaka 16
Knowledge of God Alone Leads to Release 17
The Unborn Prajapati is born Diversely 17
Minor Gods Submit to the Knower of the Supreme 18
The Spouses Hri and Laksmi 19
Hiranyagarbha-sukta 20
Paramatman as the Time-binding Experience in All Living Beings 24
Ekadeva, the Supreme Divine Being, Works the Entire Universe 26
The Togetherness of the Universe in God 28
God is the Web and Woof of Creation 28
Vena, after Realizing the Immortal, Taught It 28
The Knower of God Deserves Highest Honour 28
God is the Friend, Parent and Ordainer 31
God-Realization: A Simultaneous Experience of Identity 32-35
Substance of Mantras I. 6-18 33-35
A Supplication for Intellectual Powers 35
Prayers to Agni for Granting Specific Needs 37
Rudragayatri 39
The Ancestry and Significance of Gayatris 40
Gayatris of Mahadeva, Vinayaka, Nandikesvara, Sanmukha,
Garuda, Brahma, Narayana, Narasimha, Aditya, Agni and Durgi
Gayatris from Agamas and Tantras 49
Panic Grass: Religious Importance of It 50
Repetition of Proper Ritual Acts Deepens Religious Life 51
Multiplication of Progeny and Social Transmission 52
Prayer to the Earth and Self-Purification by it 53
The Earth Glorified and Implored to for Favours 54-56
Supplication to Indra For Fearlessness and Well-being 57
Real nature of Indra in the Rgvedasamhita 59
An Oft-quoted Prayer for Well-being 59
Prayer to Indra and Soma 60-62
Vena as the Symbol of the Supreme Reality 62
The Earth Implored to Grant Bliss and to End Sorrows 64
An Invocation to the Earth Glorified as Sri 65
Welcoming Values and Exorcising Dis-values 66
Well-being Sought From Indra 67
Prayer for Fitness to Sacrifice and Destruction of Enemies 68
The Lord's Feet and One's Own Moral Conduct Save One Misery 69
Prayer Addressed to Indra for Safety 70
Propitiation of Water and Herbs 71
How the Vedas Help the Common Men 71
Aghamarsana Sukta: Its Philosophy and Import 72
Prayer to Varuna for Purity 75
Right Livelihood: Expiation of Transgressions 76
Salutations to Agni, Indra and Varuna 76
Counteracting Adverse Effects of Water 77
Expiation of the Sins of Gluttony and Greed and the Principle underlying It 78
Invocation to the Ten Deified Rgvedic Rivers 80-81
A Creationistic Hymn (Rgveda. X. 190) 81
A Prayer for Total Purity 84
Oblation of Finite Self into Infinite Brahman 86
Varuna, the Sin-effacer 89
Self-abasement Before God's Supreme Purity 90
Soma as Umamahesvara and the King of the Universe 91
Durga-sukta-Hymn to Durga 93-100
Atri's Perpetual Prayer for the Peace and Safety of All 98
Prayer to Fire God for Happiness and Fortune 101
Prayer to Indra and Visnu for Devotion 102
Mantars Chanted while Making Oblations for Increase of Food 103
Mahavyahrtihoma: Chanting for Destroying Sin 105
Mantras for Offering Oblations for Greatness 107
Prayers for the Attainment of Knowledge 109
Prayers for Removing Obstacles in the Path to Higher Knowledge 112
Prayer for Retention of the Scripture Learnt 112
Moral and Spiritual Discipline Eulogised as Tapas 115-117
Approval of Meritorious Work and Censure of the Opposite Kind 118
An Echo of this Upanisad in the Dhammapada 120
Grace of God is a Necessary Condition for Seeing Him 121
God as the Source of Life, Body and Environment 123
The Best Instances of the Type Remind Us of Divine Glory 126
Bondage to Nature and Release from It 127
Hamsamantra: Its Non-dualistic Meaning 129
Prajapati as God Immanent and Transcendental 132
Prayer to Savitr for Plenty 134
Fitness for Spiritual Illumination Engendered through Sacrifices 135
The Greatness of Divine Names 136-140
The Greatness of Vedantic Knowledge 141
A Prayer for Unbroken Thought of God 143
The Greatness of Purusa: The Tree Analogy 145
Immortality through Renunciation: Its Rareness 146
Vedanta, Sannyasa and Yoga as Methods of Release fro Transmigration 149
The place Where God is to be Worshipped 151
Mahesvara-Who is He? 153
Visvapurusa Narayana-His Nature, Glory, His Residence in the Heart, and His Identity with the Universe and all Gods 155-169
Worship of the Supreme Being in the Solar Orb 170
The Glory of the Sun 173-176
Aditya Designated by Pranava and Worshipped as Brahman 177
Mantras for the Consecration of Sivalinga 178
Prayer to Sadyojata-Siva for Release from Transmigration 182
Salutation to Vamadeva-Siva 183
Salutation to Aghora-Siva 185
Salutation to Isana, the Lord of All, and Prayer for His Blessings 186
Salutations to Pasupati-Siva 186
Salutations to Brahmapurusa in the Androgynous Form 187
Salutations to Rudra in the Universal Aspect 188
Longing to Worship Rudra at Heart with Hymns 190
Material of the Sacrificial Laddle: Sacrifices Lead to Inner Purity 192
A Hymn Prescribed for Counteracting Evil 193
A Formula in Praise of the Earth as Aditi 195
Water Eulogized as the Omnific Cause 196
Invoking Water for Self-purification 197
Self-oblation into the True Immortal Light 199
Sun as the Divine into Whom Self-oblation is Made 201
The Pranava Identified with Brahman: Some Details About it 204
Invocation of Gayatri-the Mother of Vedas 206
Day to Day Removal of Sins 207
Invocation of Gayatri and personification of the Formula 209
Worship of Gayatri 211-214
Vyahrtis, Gayatri and Gayatrisiras for Pranayama 214
Details About Gayatri: Significance Explained 215-217
Dismissal of Gayatridevi 218
Worship of Gayatri Gives Welfare 219-220
Oblation of Pranas to Soma 221
Trisuparna Mantras 221-225
Mental Power Necessary to Reach Brahman 225
Prayer to Savitr to Remove the Sleep of Illusion 225
Prayer to Savitr for Heralding in What is Auspicious 225
Madhumantras which Stress upon the Need of True Disciples, Supreme Knowledge and Salubrious Environment 225
Invocation for Obtaining Intelligence Quoted From Other Vedas 230
The Glory of Trisuparna 232-235
Fire-Worship as Mystic Communion 235
Prayer to the Deity Called Medha 237
Intelligence and Wealth Must Combine 237
Importance of Speech Guarded by Intelligence 239
Prayers to Indra, Sarasvati, Aswins, Gandharvas and Apsaras for Intelligence 242
Agni, Indra and Surya Supplicated for Intelligence 243
Prayer for Longevity, Safety, Sinlessness and Wealth 244
Death! Go Back; Do not Strike Us 245
May We Live Long Brilliant Life-A Prayer 246
Fear of Yama and Accusation of Others Prayed Away 247
Longing for the Path of Liberation 249
Power of Yajna to Take One Across the Sea of Death 250
Death Placated for Granting Safety 251
Rudra is Implored Not to Hurt 252
Rudra is Saluted to Spare One's Belongings 254
A prayer to Prajapati 257
The Power of Yajna to loosen Death-traps 258
Death Includes Many Snares 259
Oblations to Remove Offences Done to Gods And Men 261
Individual is Responsible for the Offences of the Group Also 262
Prayer to Remove Hostile Spirits 263
Desire Made the Scapegoat 265
Kama-the Philosophy Behind this Term 266-267
Manyu 267
Burnt Offerings of Sesamum for Benefits 268
Preparation for Sannyasa 269
Sesamum for Oblation 270
The Level of the Community Influences the Individual's Moral Stature 270
The Oblation Known as Viraja for Self-Purification 271-284
A Possible Indication that the Oblation May be Offered by Either Sex 273
Viraja Oblations Continued 274
Hidden Egoism 275
The Eclipsed Soul Comes out in all Splendour 279
Hunger and Thirst 280
Asceticism implied in Sannyasa 281
Efface Misfortune, Adversity and Poverty 282
Laksmi and Alaksmi 283
Thirty-seven Oblatory Formulas for Baliharana 284-286
Importance of Food for All Living Beings 287
Troubling Rudragana Prayed to for Safety 288
The Supreme Truth 289
Puruh or Puh 290
Brahman as All-God 291
Sraddha-a Deity to be Worshipped 292
Pranagnihotra 292-297
Food-seeking Instinct Spiritualised 294
Amrtahoma 296
The Container and Cover for Food 295-296
Final Mantras Completing Pranagnihotra 297
Purusa of the Size of the Thumb is Satisfied by Repast 297
God the True Enjoyer: Man, Only an Instrument 298
Satisfaction of a Repast Must Bring Remembrance of God 299
Enjoy What is Granted to Us by God 300
Prayer to Remove the Bondage of Ignorance 301
Rudra as Pranagranthi 302
Lapse of Ahankara, Sign of Maturity 303
Unity of Visnu and Siva 304
Manifoldness of Agni-the Divine 304
Yajna Personified and Venerated 305
Brahman in the Brahmana 308
Truthfulness as Supreme Means of Liberation 309
Sugar-Coating Truth with Untruth 310
Religious Fast as Tapas 311
Sense-Control as Tapas 312
Tranquilization of Mind as Tapas 313
Religious Righteousness as Foundation of All 314
Procreation 315
The Five Mahagnis 316
Agnihotra as Means of Liberation 317
Yajna Leads Men to the Status of Gods in Heaven 317
Manasa-Inward Worship-Its Importance 318
How Yajna Prepares One to be an Atmayajin 319
Sannyasa Declared to be Supreme 320
Two Different Vies of Nyasa 321
Sauparneya Aruni's Question to His Father 322
Tapas is Behind Great Achievements 322-323
Sense-Control: Its Greatness and Inaccessibility 324
Calmness of Mind as means of Liberation 326
Selfless-Gift as the Shelter of Sacrifice 327
Dharma or Justice is the Defence of the Oppressed 328
Procreation as the Foundation of Races 330
The Conception of Threefold debts 331
Why Sacrificial Fires are Important? 332
Agnihotra-the Beacon to Heaven 334
Yajna as a Potent Weapon 335
The Value of Inward Concentration 336
Sannyasa Eulogised as the Supreme 337
A Panegyric upon Food 339
The Scale of Values: Sun, Rain, Flora, Food, Strength,
Power, Tapas, Faith, Sense-Control, Reflection, Calmness,
Remembrance, Direct Realisation and Bliss
Knowledge of the Atmapurusa Leads to Release 342
Why Sannyasa is the Greatest Tapas? 344
Brahman as Giver of all Light 346
Prescription for Meditation as Given to Sannyasins 348
Atmayajna is a Development of Upasana 349
The Complete Cycle-From Birth to Release 351

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