Madhvasiddantasara which is a commentary on Padartha sangraha enumerates the categories in Dvaita Vedanta in a clear and concise way. This work is modeled on Tarkasangraha, a manual of Nyaya and Arthasangraha, a manual of Purvamimamsa.
Each category of Dvaita Vedanta is explicitly stated and its definitions and divisions are given.
Apart from giving the categories in detail, three Pramanas viz. Pratyaksa, Anumana and Agama are also described.
The concept of Mukti in Dvaita is explained and Moksasadhanas are given in detail. Authorities are quoted for each point made in this work.
This is edited by Vidwan Dr. R.G. Malagi, formerly Dy. Director, Oriental Research Institute, Mysore and Sri S.R. Pandurangi. They have edited this valuable text ‘Padartha sangraha’ and its commentary ‘Madhvasiddhanta Sara’ in a systematic way. Topics are classified according to prakarana. The editors have verified the quotations from Sarvamula works, Bhagavata, Gita, Upanisads etc., in editing this valuable work.
We record our appreciation for the good work done by these two editors.
This work is more useful to the Scholars and Research Students.
Madhvasiddhantasara of Sri Vedagarbha Padmanabhasuri is a detailed commentary on Padarthasangraha a text by the author of Madhvasiddhantasara itself.
This text describes the categories of Dvaita Vedanta on the model of Tarkasangraha for Nyaya and Arthasangraha for Purvamimamsa. However the subject matter of Padarthasangraha is Dvaita Vednta and quite distinct in respect of categories. For instance, are seven padarthas in Nyaya and ten padarthas in Dvaita Vedanta. Visista, Amsi, Sakti, Sadrsya are four additional padarthas in Dvaita Vedanta. Samavaya of Nyaya is not acceptable to Dvaita Vedanta. Though samanya and visesa are considered as padarthas, agree in name, but their nature is quite from that of Nyaya.
According to Nyaya, Samanya or Sadarana Dharma also known as jati is one in all members of that class. For example Gotavajati is one in all cows according there to Nyaya. But in Dvaita, Gotvadharma is separate in each cow. These separate dharmas are similar to each other. It is in this sense it is called Samanya.
Same is in the case with Visesa. The concept of Visesa is developed in Dvaita to account forअभेदेअपि भेदव्यवहार. The dravya and its yavadravyabhavi attributes have abheda relation but still there is bhedavyavahara between the two. This is due to Visesa. However in Nyaya there is bheda among the paramanus. But to account for this there is no proper ground. Visesa is conceived as the ground to account for bheda among the paramanus. It is a case भेदे भेदव्यवहारनिर्वाहकत्व .
In Dvaita, twenty Dravyas are enumerated. Paramatma, Laksmi, Jiva are considered as Dravya. Avyakrtakasa is distinct from Bhutakasa is also envisaged as Dravya. Prakrti, Gunatraya etc. popularly known as Sankya categories are considered as Dravya in Dvaita Vedanta. Andhakara i.e. darkness is also considered as dravya.
Gunas are not restricted to twenty four. But these are stated to be many. This is to account for the Anantagunaprnatva of Supreme God.
Karma is classified taking into account its religious import as विहितकर्म and निषिध्दकर्म. Physical activities are brought under उदासीनकर्म.
Visista is considered a separate category. When an object is qualified by certain attributes, these attributes and attributed constitute a separate padartha.
Among the four varieties of Sakti i.e. potency, achintyasakti is most important. This belongs to Supreme God. When certain event, or situation, or the nature of the category cannot be explained by the ordinary logic, then it has to be managed by achintyasakti of God.
Dravya is defined as upadanakarana. Upadanatva is of two types: (1) Modification (Parinama) (2) Manifestation (Abhivyakti).
Under Paramatma all important aspects of the Supreme God are stated. Among this Svatantratva and Anantagunapari-purnatva are most important. All incarnations of the God are Purna.
Laksmi is paratantra in the sense she is dependent on Supreme God only. She has no prakrta body. She is also sarvasabdavachya, excluding the special names of God viz. Narayana etc. She is equal to God in respect of special and temporal extension. However in respect of qualities, she is not equal to Supreme God. Jivas are affected by ajnana. They undergo transmigration. Jiva are many and distinct from each other. These are broadly three types, muktiyoga, nityasamsari and tamoyogya.
In this way the nature of all important categories are stated in Padarthasangraha and explained in detail in Madhvasiddhantasara.
Madhvasiddhantasara quotes the authority for each point made in Padarthasangraha. Bhagavatatatpartya Nirnaya and Gitatatpartya Nirnaya are frequently quoted. The list of authorities quoted in Madhvasiddhantasara is given in parisista to fecilitate to trace them in Madhvasiddhantasara and understand the context in which these are quoted and their import.
In Indian philosophy many technical terms are common in different of schools of philosophy. Particularly the terms in Vedanta. For example the term Avidya occurs both in Dvaita and Advaita. But its nature and implications is quite different. Similarly the term Prakrti occurs in Sankya and Dvaita Vedanta.
In Sankhya, Prakrti is independent material cause, while in Dvaita it is material cause under the control of Supreme God.
The bheda or distinction between God and Jiva are most important. It is stated in five ways. This pancabheda is the bed-rock of Dvaita philosophy which Advaita considers it only as व्यावहारिक.
One has to be careful to sort out the difference of the import of technical terms.
Madhvasiddhantasara considerably helps to correctly identify all the doctorines of Dvaita Vedanta.
It is hoped that this volume is helpful to the Scholars and Research students. The text of Padarthasangraha has already edited by Dr. D. N. Shanbhag and published by Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation in the year 1994.
Later we though the publication of Madhvasiddhantasara, a detailed commentary on Padarthasangraha, which is more helpful to the Scholars and Research Students.
It is hoped that this valuable work is duly utilized.
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