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The Lost City of Dvaraka
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The Lost City of Dvaraka
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About the Book

The discovery of the legendary city of Dvaraka which is said to have been founded by Sri Krishna, is an important landmark in the history of India. It has set at rest the doubts expressed by historians about the historicity of Mahabharata and the very existence of Dvaraka city. It has greatly narrowed the gap in Indian history by establishing the continuity of the Indian civilization from the Vedic Age to the present day. The discovery has also shed welcome light on second urbanization in the so-called 'Dark Age'; on the resuscitation of dharma, on the resumption of maritime trade, and use of Sanskrit language and modified Indus script. Incidentally, scientific data useful for a study of sea level changes and effect of marine environment on metals and wood over long periods has also been generated by underwater exploration. All this was possible because of the dedicated and daring efforts of marine archaeologists, scientists and technicians of the Marine Archaeology Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography.

In Chapter 1 of the book an attempt is made to acquaint the reader with the main personalities and events of the Mahabharata and to give various shades of opinion about the human-divine character of Sri Krishna, although for purposes of scientific investigation of the city of Dvaraka it did not matter much whether he was a divine or a human being with superhuman qualities. His commitment to uphold the dignity of man and to induce people to do their duty fearlessly and without expecting any reward have guided succeeding generations of Indians to follow the path of dharma as enunciated in the Bhagavadgita.

Chapter 2 gives a summary of the textual references to the location of Dvaraka and checks the claims of four different sites in Saurashtra to be recognized as Krishnas Dvaraka with reference to archaeological evidence available. Particulars of the onshore archaeological evidence at Dwarka in 1979-80 which clinch the issue are also mentioned.

In Chapter 3 the problems of organizing Marine Archaeological expeditions and the methodology adopted in underwater excavation and documentation are briefly stated so that the general reader may be able to follow the details of exploration given in the next chapter.

In Chapter 4 the details of structures and portable finds are given for the benefit of experts. This may not interest the general reader, but in the interest of scientific recording the details had to be included. The interest of the non-expert is also borne in mind and a summary of findings is given.

Chapter 5 deals with geophysical survey and exploration in Dwarka, Bet Dwarka and Somnath waters.

Chapter 6 is devoted to the identification of submerged structures of Bet Dwarka and Dwarka with those mentioned in the ancient texts and the basis on which dating has been done is also explained. In conclusion it can be said that the .archaeological finds are compatible with the textual description of ancient Dvaraka which was a city - state comprising of Kusasthali-Dvaraka (Bet Dwarka), Dvaraka port town on the mainland, Nagesvara and perhaps Pindara also.

Chapter 7 highlights the significance of the antiquities found in excavations for purposes of dating Dvaraka and assessing the level of civilization during the Mahabharata period.

 

About the Author

Dr. Shikaripur Ranganatha Rao (S.R. Rao), M.A., D.Litt. (born 1922), is the discoverer of a large number of Harappan sites including the famous port-city of Lothal in Gujarat. His excavations at Rangpur and Lothal after the partition of the subcontinent of India not only added a new Province to the Indus Empire but also cleared many doubts about the survival and contributions of Indus Civilization to the progress of mankind. After serving the Archaeological Survey of India for 32 years he retired in 1980, but immediately thereafter his services were requisitioned by the Indian National Science Academy and later by the Department of Science and Technology and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research to be the Emeritus Scientist at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. He is the pioneer of Marine Archaeological Studies in India. Among the several honours and awards received by him, particular mention may be made of Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship for decipherment of Indus script, the Centenary Gold Medal of the Archaeological Department of Karnataka and the first World Ship-Trust Award for individual excellence in Marine Archaeology.

 

Preface

A brief review of the political and social conditions prevailing in North India (Aryavarta and adjoining areas) which contributed to the emergence of Sri Krishna as a divine-human hero and leader par excellence who founded Dvaraka and re-established dharma is felt necessary before examining the historicity of Mahabharata and the existence of the Dvaraka city which was later swallowed by the sea.

The urban discipline of the Indus (Sindhu-Sarasvati) Civilization was a product of the inner psychological discipline (meditation) practised by the Harappans who were also fire-worshippers and offered sacrifices, as did the Vedic Aryans. The visual representation of this inner discipline can be inferred from their seals and terracotta models in which the Gods and humans are depicted in yogic asanas (Rao, S.R. 1991, pI. CXL VI). The efficiency seen in the administration of the vast empire and even small towns and villages, besides regulating trade and commerce, is remarkable for the Age. The importance attached to spiritual power which was no less than physical power (sahas-mahas) is mentioned in the Harappan seal inscriptions and pictorial representations (Rao, S.R. 1991, pls. CXXXIV-CXXXVI). The basis for the Harappan value system was the complex ethical, intellectual and social culture created by the Vedas. But with the decline of the Indus cities and villages due to natural calamities there was a gradual decline in ethical standards in the Late Harappan period when small Janapadas mushroomed all over Western and Northern India. The political ambitions of the rulers during the post-Harappan (Mahabharata) period for establishing larger kingdoms and even empires by means, fair or foul, led to cruelty and disregard of the respect for women. The greedy Kaurava princes not only usurped the kingdom that belonged to the Pandava brothers but also insulted the princess Draupadi in the open assembly. This was the height of adharma (immoral political and social behaviour). A saviour of the situation who appeared on the scene is Sri Krishna who exhorted Arjuna to do his duty in the Bharata War as a Kshatriya. Being intensely spiritual, and intensely practical he enunciated the body of doctrines known as the Bhagavadgita. For re-establishing dharma he, as a shrewd statesman, used various methods to get rid of the evil-doers.

The discovery of the legendary city of Dvaraka which is said to have been founded by Sri Krishna, is an important landmark in the history of India. It has set at rest the doubts expressed by historians about the historicity of Mahabharata and the very existence of Dvaraka city. It has greatly narrowed the gap in Indian history by establishing the continuity of the Indian civilization from the Vedic Age to the present day. The discovery has also shed welcome light on second urbanization in the so-called 'Dark Age', on the resuscitation of dharma, on the resumption of maritime trade, and use of Sanskrit language and modified Indus script. Incidentally, scientific data useful for a study of sea level changes and effect of marine environment on metals and wood over long periods has also been generated by underwater exploration. All this was possible because of the dedicated and daring efforts of marine archaeologists, scientists and technicians of the Marine Archaeology Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography.

Marine Archaeology was an unknown discipline in India till 1980. After the onshore excavation at modern Dwarka on Gujarat coast in 1979-80 pointed out the necessity of searching for the legendary Dvaraka in the sea, a well equipped team of experienced diving archaeologists was conceived. Fortunately, help came from unexpected quarters, namely, the Indian National Science Academy and the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, the former providing seed money and the latter the much needed infrastructural facility. Subsequently the Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India gave grants for equipment and training of archaeologists and technicians in diving and documentation. The Archaeological Survey of India also extended help and finally it is the CSIR which integrated the Marine Archaeology Centre in the NIO. The main object of this young discipline of Marine Archaeology is to explore, excavate and preserve underwater cultural heritage of man. India's maritime history goes back to the days of the Indus Civilization and its contribution to the dissemination of knowledge and the spread of Indian art, literature, religion and philosophy beyond Indian shores is due to the daring efforts of sailors, merchants, princes and religious leaders. Sunken ships and submerged cities such as Dvaraka and Pumpuhar speak volumes about the cultural interaction of the Indians with overseas people. The present book deals with the discovery of Dvaraka and its importance to Indian history, religion and philosophy.

In Chapter 1 of the book an attempt is made to acquaint the reader with the main personalities and events of the Mahabharata and to give various shades of opinion about the human-divine character of Sri Krishna, although for purposes of scientific investigation of the city of Dvaraka it did not matter much whether he was a divine or. a human being with superhuman qualities. His commitment to uphold the dignity of man and to induce people to do their duty fearlessly and without expecting any reward have guided succeeding generations of Indians to follow the path of dharma as enunciated in the Bhagavadgita.

Chapter 2 gives a summary of the textual references to the location of Dvaraka and checks the claims of four different sites in Saurashtra to be recognized as Krishna's Dvaraka with reference to archaeological evidence available. Particulars of the onshore archaeological evidence at Dwarka in 1979-80 which clinch the issue are also mentioned.

In Chapter 3 the problems of organizing Marine Archaeological expeditions and the methodology adopted in underwater excavation and documentation are briefly stated so that the general reader may be able to follow the details of exploration given in the next chapter.

Despite problems of poor visibility, swells, currents and non-availability of certain equipment the results achieved in the course of early expeditions were encouraging. The day-to-day findings and the details of structures and portable finds are given for the benefit of experts. This may not interest the general reader, but in the interest of scientific recording the details had to be included. The interest of the non-expert is also borne in mind and a summary of findings is given at intervals.

Chapter 5 deals with geophysical survey and exploration in Dwarka, Bet Dwarka and Somnath waters.

Chapter 6 is devoted to the identification of submerged structures of Bet Dwarka and Dwarka with those mentioned in the ancient texts and the basis on which dating has been done is also explained. In conclusion it can be said that the archaeological finds are compatible with the textual description of ancient Dvaraka which was a city - state comprising of Kusasthali-Dvaraka (Bet Dwarka), Dvaraka port town on the mainland, Nagesvara and perhaps Pindara also. I know there is some controversy about the date of Mahabharata War, but so far as the archaeological evidence from onshore and offshore excavations is concerned Kusasthali with its Late Harappan relics where the first Dvaraka was built may be assigned to 1700 BC and the town on the mainland may be slightly later in date. Further exploration in 15 to 20 meters water depth seaward of the submerged ridge may yield more antiquities washed away from the harbour area.

An important contribution made by Marine Archaeology is that it has generated scientific data useful for the study of sea level fluctuations during the last 3500 years. The net rise in sea level may be around 7 to 8 meters which is not contrary to what R.R. Nair and his colleagues have postulated after a survey off Vijayadurg on Konkan coast. At Pindara in Positra Bay of the Gulf of Kutch the rise appears to be about 2 meters during the last 1500 years. All these data need to be verified by more extensive survey and intensive study.

Antiquities found in the course of explorations are described in Chapter 7. While the inscriptions are highly useful for understanding the literacy of the residents of Dvaraka, they throw new light on the evolution of the Late Indus cursive script suggesting 'an evolution towards Brahmi script. The language of the votive jar inscription is Old Indo- Aryan as discussed by expert epigraphists. On paleographic grounds the inscription is datable to 17th century BC or.slightly later. The Late Indus type seal may be of almost the same period or slightly earlier. The date of submerged town on the mainland is corroborated by the date of triangular stone anchors and Lustrous Red Ware found in eroded deposits. It is necessary to add that after the submergence of Epic Dvaraka in Period I (l5th Century BC) there was a long gap in the occupation of Bet Dwarka and mainland Dwarka in 3rd-lst century BC designated as Period H. The submerged structures of these two periods have been distinguished. If one considers the excellent stone masonry of Dholavira in 2000 BC it is no wonder that Dwarka could build bastions etc. Since the TL date of pottery from the upper fort wall in the cliff section of Bet Dwarka (BDK I and II) is 1528 BC the date assigned on paleographic and other evidences to the first settlement on the ruins of Kusasthali, namely, 17th century BC may not be off the mark. The first use of iron at Gufkrol in India in the 16th century BC, suggests that the reference to the use of iron weapons in the Bharata War is not an exaggeration.

The underwater exploration 1.5 km seaward of mainland Dwarka in January 1998 has confirmed that the ancient city did not extend beyond the ridge which marks the ancient harbour zone. The brief survey and offshore excavation near the jetty of Bet Dwarka has opened up possibilities of the extension of 17th-16th century BC town and harbour on the western flank of the island.

 

Contents

 

  List of Figures and Plates ix
  Preface xv
  Acknowledgement xix
  Abbreviations xxi
  Glossary of Term xxiii
  Credit xxiv
Chapter-1 In Search of Truth 1
Chapter-2 Location of ancient Dvaraka: Literary and Archaeological Evidences 22
Chapter-3 Problems of Underwater Search: Systems, Methodology and Preliminary Surveys 42
Chapter-4 Discovery of submerged Buildings of Dvaraka in the Sea 61
Chapter-5 Geophysical and Manual surveys 86
Chapter-6 Identification of Submerged Town as Dvaraka of Mahabharata Period 101
Chapter-7 Antiquities 114
  Appendix-I A Preliminary Exploration of Prabhas-Somnath 133
  Appendix-II A Brief History of Bet Dwaraka (Sankhodhara) 136
  Appendix-III Attacks on Dvaraka By Enemy Forces and Destruction by the Sea 138
  Appendix-IV Sea Level Fluctuations on Bahrain and Dwaraka Coast 140
  Postscript 143
  References 145
  Index 151

 
















The Lost City of Dvaraka

Item Code:
NAN107
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
1999
Publisher:
ISBN:
8186471480
Language:
English
Size:
11.0 inch x 9.0 inch
Pages:
399 (209 B/W Illustrations)
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 1.4 kg
Price:
$90.00   Shipping Free - 4 to 6 days
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About the Book

The discovery of the legendary city of Dvaraka which is said to have been founded by Sri Krishna, is an important landmark in the history of India. It has set at rest the doubts expressed by historians about the historicity of Mahabharata and the very existence of Dvaraka city. It has greatly narrowed the gap in Indian history by establishing the continuity of the Indian civilization from the Vedic Age to the present day. The discovery has also shed welcome light on second urbanization in the so-called 'Dark Age'; on the resuscitation of dharma, on the resumption of maritime trade, and use of Sanskrit language and modified Indus script. Incidentally, scientific data useful for a study of sea level changes and effect of marine environment on metals and wood over long periods has also been generated by underwater exploration. All this was possible because of the dedicated and daring efforts of marine archaeologists, scientists and technicians of the Marine Archaeology Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography.

In Chapter 1 of the book an attempt is made to acquaint the reader with the main personalities and events of the Mahabharata and to give various shades of opinion about the human-divine character of Sri Krishna, although for purposes of scientific investigation of the city of Dvaraka it did not matter much whether he was a divine or a human being with superhuman qualities. His commitment to uphold the dignity of man and to induce people to do their duty fearlessly and without expecting any reward have guided succeeding generations of Indians to follow the path of dharma as enunciated in the Bhagavadgita.

Chapter 2 gives a summary of the textual references to the location of Dvaraka and checks the claims of four different sites in Saurashtra to be recognized as Krishnas Dvaraka with reference to archaeological evidence available. Particulars of the onshore archaeological evidence at Dwarka in 1979-80 which clinch the issue are also mentioned.

In Chapter 3 the problems of organizing Marine Archaeological expeditions and the methodology adopted in underwater excavation and documentation are briefly stated so that the general reader may be able to follow the details of exploration given in the next chapter.

In Chapter 4 the details of structures and portable finds are given for the benefit of experts. This may not interest the general reader, but in the interest of scientific recording the details had to be included. The interest of the non-expert is also borne in mind and a summary of findings is given.

Chapter 5 deals with geophysical survey and exploration in Dwarka, Bet Dwarka and Somnath waters.

Chapter 6 is devoted to the identification of submerged structures of Bet Dwarka and Dwarka with those mentioned in the ancient texts and the basis on which dating has been done is also explained. In conclusion it can be said that the .archaeological finds are compatible with the textual description of ancient Dvaraka which was a city - state comprising of Kusasthali-Dvaraka (Bet Dwarka), Dvaraka port town on the mainland, Nagesvara and perhaps Pindara also.

Chapter 7 highlights the significance of the antiquities found in excavations for purposes of dating Dvaraka and assessing the level of civilization during the Mahabharata period.

 

About the Author

Dr. Shikaripur Ranganatha Rao (S.R. Rao), M.A., D.Litt. (born 1922), is the discoverer of a large number of Harappan sites including the famous port-city of Lothal in Gujarat. His excavations at Rangpur and Lothal after the partition of the subcontinent of India not only added a new Province to the Indus Empire but also cleared many doubts about the survival and contributions of Indus Civilization to the progress of mankind. After serving the Archaeological Survey of India for 32 years he retired in 1980, but immediately thereafter his services were requisitioned by the Indian National Science Academy and later by the Department of Science and Technology and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research to be the Emeritus Scientist at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. He is the pioneer of Marine Archaeological Studies in India. Among the several honours and awards received by him, particular mention may be made of Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship for decipherment of Indus script, the Centenary Gold Medal of the Archaeological Department of Karnataka and the first World Ship-Trust Award for individual excellence in Marine Archaeology.

 

Preface

A brief review of the political and social conditions prevailing in North India (Aryavarta and adjoining areas) which contributed to the emergence of Sri Krishna as a divine-human hero and leader par excellence who founded Dvaraka and re-established dharma is felt necessary before examining the historicity of Mahabharata and the existence of the Dvaraka city which was later swallowed by the sea.

The urban discipline of the Indus (Sindhu-Sarasvati) Civilization was a product of the inner psychological discipline (meditation) practised by the Harappans who were also fire-worshippers and offered sacrifices, as did the Vedic Aryans. The visual representation of this inner discipline can be inferred from their seals and terracotta models in which the Gods and humans are depicted in yogic asanas (Rao, S.R. 1991, pI. CXL VI). The efficiency seen in the administration of the vast empire and even small towns and villages, besides regulating trade and commerce, is remarkable for the Age. The importance attached to spiritual power which was no less than physical power (sahas-mahas) is mentioned in the Harappan seal inscriptions and pictorial representations (Rao, S.R. 1991, pls. CXXXIV-CXXXVI). The basis for the Harappan value system was the complex ethical, intellectual and social culture created by the Vedas. But with the decline of the Indus cities and villages due to natural calamities there was a gradual decline in ethical standards in the Late Harappan period when small Janapadas mushroomed all over Western and Northern India. The political ambitions of the rulers during the post-Harappan (Mahabharata) period for establishing larger kingdoms and even empires by means, fair or foul, led to cruelty and disregard of the respect for women. The greedy Kaurava princes not only usurped the kingdom that belonged to the Pandava brothers but also insulted the princess Draupadi in the open assembly. This was the height of adharma (immoral political and social behaviour). A saviour of the situation who appeared on the scene is Sri Krishna who exhorted Arjuna to do his duty in the Bharata War as a Kshatriya. Being intensely spiritual, and intensely practical he enunciated the body of doctrines known as the Bhagavadgita. For re-establishing dharma he, as a shrewd statesman, used various methods to get rid of the evil-doers.

The discovery of the legendary city of Dvaraka which is said to have been founded by Sri Krishna, is an important landmark in the history of India. It has set at rest the doubts expressed by historians about the historicity of Mahabharata and the very existence of Dvaraka city. It has greatly narrowed the gap in Indian history by establishing the continuity of the Indian civilization from the Vedic Age to the present day. The discovery has also shed welcome light on second urbanization in the so-called 'Dark Age', on the resuscitation of dharma, on the resumption of maritime trade, and use of Sanskrit language and modified Indus script. Incidentally, scientific data useful for a study of sea level changes and effect of marine environment on metals and wood over long periods has also been generated by underwater exploration. All this was possible because of the dedicated and daring efforts of marine archaeologists, scientists and technicians of the Marine Archaeology Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography.

Marine Archaeology was an unknown discipline in India till 1980. After the onshore excavation at modern Dwarka on Gujarat coast in 1979-80 pointed out the necessity of searching for the legendary Dvaraka in the sea, a well equipped team of experienced diving archaeologists was conceived. Fortunately, help came from unexpected quarters, namely, the Indian National Science Academy and the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, the former providing seed money and the latter the much needed infrastructural facility. Subsequently the Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India gave grants for equipment and training of archaeologists and technicians in diving and documentation. The Archaeological Survey of India also extended help and finally it is the CSIR which integrated the Marine Archaeology Centre in the NIO. The main object of this young discipline of Marine Archaeology is to explore, excavate and preserve underwater cultural heritage of man. India's maritime history goes back to the days of the Indus Civilization and its contribution to the dissemination of knowledge and the spread of Indian art, literature, religion and philosophy beyond Indian shores is due to the daring efforts of sailors, merchants, princes and religious leaders. Sunken ships and submerged cities such as Dvaraka and Pumpuhar speak volumes about the cultural interaction of the Indians with overseas people. The present book deals with the discovery of Dvaraka and its importance to Indian history, religion and philosophy.

In Chapter 1 of the book an attempt is made to acquaint the reader with the main personalities and events of the Mahabharata and to give various shades of opinion about the human-divine character of Sri Krishna, although for purposes of scientific investigation of the city of Dvaraka it did not matter much whether he was a divine or. a human being with superhuman qualities. His commitment to uphold the dignity of man and to induce people to do their duty fearlessly and without expecting any reward have guided succeeding generations of Indians to follow the path of dharma as enunciated in the Bhagavadgita.

Chapter 2 gives a summary of the textual references to the location of Dvaraka and checks the claims of four different sites in Saurashtra to be recognized as Krishna's Dvaraka with reference to archaeological evidence available. Particulars of the onshore archaeological evidence at Dwarka in 1979-80 which clinch the issue are also mentioned.

In Chapter 3 the problems of organizing Marine Archaeological expeditions and the methodology adopted in underwater excavation and documentation are briefly stated so that the general reader may be able to follow the details of exploration given in the next chapter.

Despite problems of poor visibility, swells, currents and non-availability of certain equipment the results achieved in the course of early expeditions were encouraging. The day-to-day findings and the details of structures and portable finds are given for the benefit of experts. This may not interest the general reader, but in the interest of scientific recording the details had to be included. The interest of the non-expert is also borne in mind and a summary of findings is given at intervals.

Chapter 5 deals with geophysical survey and exploration in Dwarka, Bet Dwarka and Somnath waters.

Chapter 6 is devoted to the identification of submerged structures of Bet Dwarka and Dwarka with those mentioned in the ancient texts and the basis on which dating has been done is also explained. In conclusion it can be said that the archaeological finds are compatible with the textual description of ancient Dvaraka which was a city - state comprising of Kusasthali-Dvaraka (Bet Dwarka), Dvaraka port town on the mainland, Nagesvara and perhaps Pindara also. I know there is some controversy about the date of Mahabharata War, but so far as the archaeological evidence from onshore and offshore excavations is concerned Kusasthali with its Late Harappan relics where the first Dvaraka was built may be assigned to 1700 BC and the town on the mainland may be slightly later in date. Further exploration in 15 to 20 meters water depth seaward of the submerged ridge may yield more antiquities washed away from the harbour area.

An important contribution made by Marine Archaeology is that it has generated scientific data useful for the study of sea level fluctuations during the last 3500 years. The net rise in sea level may be around 7 to 8 meters which is not contrary to what R.R. Nair and his colleagues have postulated after a survey off Vijayadurg on Konkan coast. At Pindara in Positra Bay of the Gulf of Kutch the rise appears to be about 2 meters during the last 1500 years. All these data need to be verified by more extensive survey and intensive study.

Antiquities found in the course of explorations are described in Chapter 7. While the inscriptions are highly useful for understanding the literacy of the residents of Dvaraka, they throw new light on the evolution of the Late Indus cursive script suggesting 'an evolution towards Brahmi script. The language of the votive jar inscription is Old Indo- Aryan as discussed by expert epigraphists. On paleographic grounds the inscription is datable to 17th century BC or.slightly later. The Late Indus type seal may be of almost the same period or slightly earlier. The date of submerged town on the mainland is corroborated by the date of triangular stone anchors and Lustrous Red Ware found in eroded deposits. It is necessary to add that after the submergence of Epic Dvaraka in Period I (l5th Century BC) there was a long gap in the occupation of Bet Dwarka and mainland Dwarka in 3rd-lst century BC designated as Period H. The submerged structures of these two periods have been distinguished. If one considers the excellent stone masonry of Dholavira in 2000 BC it is no wonder that Dwarka could build bastions etc. Since the TL date of pottery from the upper fort wall in the cliff section of Bet Dwarka (BDK I and II) is 1528 BC the date assigned on paleographic and other evidences to the first settlement on the ruins of Kusasthali, namely, 17th century BC may not be off the mark. The first use of iron at Gufkrol in India in the 16th century BC, suggests that the reference to the use of iron weapons in the Bharata War is not an exaggeration.

The underwater exploration 1.5 km seaward of mainland Dwarka in January 1998 has confirmed that the ancient city did not extend beyond the ridge which marks the ancient harbour zone. The brief survey and offshore excavation near the jetty of Bet Dwarka has opened up possibilities of the extension of 17th-16th century BC town and harbour on the western flank of the island.

 

Contents

 

  List of Figures and Plates ix
  Preface xv
  Acknowledgement xix
  Abbreviations xxi
  Glossary of Term xxiii
  Credit xxiv
Chapter-1 In Search of Truth 1
Chapter-2 Location of ancient Dvaraka: Literary and Archaeological Evidences 22
Chapter-3 Problems of Underwater Search: Systems, Methodology and Preliminary Surveys 42
Chapter-4 Discovery of submerged Buildings of Dvaraka in the Sea 61
Chapter-5 Geophysical and Manual surveys 86
Chapter-6 Identification of Submerged Town as Dvaraka of Mahabharata Period 101
Chapter-7 Antiquities 114
  Appendix-I A Preliminary Exploration of Prabhas-Somnath 133
  Appendix-II A Brief History of Bet Dwaraka (Sankhodhara) 136
  Appendix-III Attacks on Dvaraka By Enemy Forces and Destruction by the Sea 138
  Appendix-IV Sea Level Fluctuations on Bahrain and Dwaraka Coast 140
  Postscript 143
  References 145
  Index 151

 
















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This is to inform you that the shipment of my order has arrived in perfect condition. The actual shipment took only less than two weeks, which is quite good seen the circumstances. I waited with my response until now since the Buddha statue was a present that I handed over just recently. The Medicine Buddha was meant for a lady who is active in the healing business and the statue was just the right thing for her. I downloaded the respective mantras and chants so that she can work with the benefits of the spiritual meanings of the statue and the mantras. She is really delighted and immediately fell in love with the beautiful statue. I am most grateful to you for having provided this wonderful work of art. We both have a strong relationship with Buddhism and know to appreciate the valuable spiritual power of this way of thinking. So thank you very much again and I am sure that I will come back again.
Bernd, Spain
You have the best selection of Hindu religous art and books and excellent service.i AM THANKFUL FOR BOTH.
Michael, USA
I am very happy with your service, and have now added a web page recommending you for those interested in Vedic astrology books: https://www.learnastrologyfree.com/vedicbooks.htm Many blessings to you.
Hank, USA
As usual I love your merchandise!!!
Anthea, USA
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