Dr. R. Vidyanath is currently working as Professor & HOD, P.G. Dept. of Ayurveda Samhita, Alva's Ayurvedic Medical College and Hospitals, Moodabidri, Karnataka. He has obtained M.D. from Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar and Ph.D. from Dr. N.T.R. University of Health Sciences, Vijayawada. He authored nearly 20 books viz. Panchakarma, A Hand Book of History of Ayurveda, Ashtanga Hridaya, Sahasrayogam, Siddhasara Samhita etc. He is the recipient of State Best Teacher Awardee 2013. He has published 47 Scientific Papers and attended nearly 85 National and International conferences in the capacity of Paper presenter, Guest Speaker, Organizing Secretary, Adjudicator and Chairperson.
Dr. K. Nishteswar is currently working as Research Director, Professor & HOD Dravyaguna, Shri Banwarilal Duggal Ayurveda Viswa Bharati, Sardarsehar, and Rajasthan. He was earlier working as Professor & HOD, Dravyaguna at I.P.G.T. & R.A. Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar; Govt. Ayurvedic College, Hyderabad and also at Vijayawada. He has obtained M.D. from G.A.U. Jamnagar and Ph.D. from University of Pune. He has received State Best Teacher Award during the year 2001. He was also awarded several Gold and Silver Medals in recognition of his merit. He has delivered Keynote lectures and Guest lecturers in several National and International Seminars. So far he has written more than 50 books on different subjects of Ayurveda and published 150 papers in peer reviewed journals and 55 in other journals. He has also served as CCIM member as well as Executive Editor for AYU an International Journal.
To grasp the science (knowledge) of life consisting of branches (Trisutra) viz. etiology, symptomatology and knowledge of therapeutics, sage Bharadhwaja down-loaded the information from Indra, which was transmitted to him by involving various levels? Acharyas by force of their intuition acquainted knowledge of science with six categories viz. Samanya, Visesha, Guna, Dravya, Karma and Samavaya which form the substratum ofAyurveda. All these six factors are designated as Karana (cause) for Karya (effect) i.e. Dhatusamyata (equilibrium of Doshas and Dhatus) of the body which is the prime object (Prayojana) of Ayurveda. Six components of Ayurveda Tantra may be explained as follows.
Dravya - matter; Guna - energy (various energy forms of Panchamahabhutas); Karma - action (substratum for Samyoga and Vibhaga); Samavaya - relationship of Dravya, Guna and Karma; Samanya and Visesha - name of the processes resulting in augmentation and diminution
Dravya with a specific relationship (Samavaya) of its components (Guna, Karma) is subjected to a specific process (Samanya and Visesha) alone contributes for the final effect desired i.e. Dhatusamyata - a sign of health. The equilibrium of tissue elements is properly maintained when Samanya and Visesha simultaneously carried out properly.
For example: Meat acts as Mamsa Vriddhi-Kara and Vatahara. Meat acts by involving Samanya and Visesha factors (processes) simultaneously in restoring Dhatusamyata. Samanya (generic concomitance) is related always to the matter alone which can augment the tissue elements, but not the qualitative generic concomitance, because the qualities cannot produce the matter. But Guna Samanya (qualitative generic concomitance) helps to infer the matter (Dravya) possessing the quality concerned. Qualities do help in sustaining the Samanya factor of a given matter. The qualities rather produce and augment qualities only. Samanya process leads to augmentation in the absence of inhibiting factors only. For example: During summer (Gresham Ritu) the intake of Madhura dravyas cannot increase Kapha due to inhibiting factor known as Ritu (Kala).
Basically Dravya constitutes of Panchamahabhutas, Atma, Manas, Kala and Dik. Matter which is sentient (Chetana) consists of all these components. Ayurveda is the first science to identify that members of vegetable kingdom have got life as well as consciousness. Soul which is sentient manifests itself only when it is combined with mind and body. So the soul in combination with the mind and body is sentient.
Charaka defines Dravya as the one "which is a substratum of the qualities and actions and which is a concomitant cause too. By this definition Dravya (matter) hap-pens to be substratum of qualities and actions and it is also the concomitant cause of another matter and qualities as well as actions. The capacity to produce something out of its own is related to Dravya only. So the matter and not the qualities or actions can substitute concomitant cause. Thus definition of Dravya defined by Charaka differentiates the latter from other five categories viz. Guna, Karma, Samanya, Visesha and Samavaya. Guna possesses inseparable concomitance and is the cause and devoid of efforts. Guna is both the substratum and content of Samavaya. Bhavamishra quotes that Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka and Prabha are the five Padardhas (aspects / working units) present in a Dravya, each attending its own functions. In this context, Guna is referred as one of the Padardhas.
Karma is action relating to something to be achieved. It is the cause of combi-nation (Samyoga) and separation (Vibhaga). Although matter is simultaneously a factor for causing combination and separation still it is so only when it possesses Karma in it. Charaka devoted that the six Dhatus (Panchamahabhuta + Atma) possess specific quail-ties. Chetana is the distinctive feature of Atma. Their combination (Samyoga) and separation (Vibhaga) are considered by the past actions of Atma (Cha.Su.11/12).
The definition rendered for Karma (Cha. Su. 1/28 & 52) among six categories is based on Nyaya system of philosophy and is related to previous birth. In the context of Dravyaguna, Karma is explained as "Yat Kurvanti tat Karma" (the effect so produced is Karma). Chakrapani interpreted the Rechana of Doshas from head as Karma of Nasya Dravya.
Atman, the sustainer of consciousness is without any beginning. Atman is of 2 types viz. absolute (Parramatta) and empirical (Jivatma). It would be evidenced to accept the association of absolute Atman with the empirical Atman to explain the consciousness in the body, because consciousness cannot be brought about without the help of empirical Atma which also is the causative factor for consciousness. Thus the body created without the empirical Atman would be just like a pitcher having no consciousness at all. It is the past action (Purvey janma Krita) of the empirical Atman which is responsible for divergences in creation like rich, poor etc.
Everything can be divided into two categories i.e. Sat (true) and Asat (untrue). These can be examined with the four methods viz. Aptopadesa (scriptural testimony -words of sages), Pratyaksha (direct perception), Anumana (inference) and Yukti (reasoning). Among them Yukti as a separate source of knowledge is uncommon in other Shastra (scriptures). In Ayurveda, Yukti is given prime importance since it helps in achieving the fulfilment of three objects of human life i.e. Dharma (virtue), Ardha (wealth) and Kama (desire).
The practical aspect of Yukti is highly essential in understanding the intricate meaning of various concepts enumerated in Ayurveda. Keeping this in view Acharyas of Ayurveda formulated Tantrayuktis. These Tantrayuktis serve as beacon to illuminate the knowledge of the concepts of texts. Susruta described Tantrayuktis in detail under Tantrabhushana Chapter (Uttaratantra).
The various concepts related to embryology, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, pathology and therapeutics of Ashtangayurveda can be examined and understood by fol-lowing certain methods. Padardha Vignanam deals with the information about these methods in detail.
Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) has merged Ayurveda Ithihas into the subject of Padardha Vignanam. In view of this, Mr. Sachin Kumar Gupta, the publisher of two books on these subjects requested us to edit them to make them suitable to the needs of student community. Accordingly the books namely Padardha Vignan writ-ten by Dr. K.V.L. Narasimhacharulu and Ayurveda Ithihas written by us are thoroughly edited to make the content of the book more lucid. The subject content is presented in toto with illustrations for a better understanding. Hope the teacher as well as student may consider it as most informative text book of Padardha-Vignanam. We welcome suggestions from academic community which shall be taken up in the subsequent editions.
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