About the Book
In 1908 Sarat Chandra Das published the Pag Sam Jon Zang by Sumpa-khampo. It has been hailed by Prof. G. Tucci: "It was composed with a wise and discriminating choice of older sources. Its purpose is to be a summa of Tibetan historical traditions) in which chronicles and myths) saints' lives and cosmogonic legends) political changes and religious doctrines (lugs gnis) meet” The importance of the work lies in passages quoted from the works of several predecessors) as he had access to a large amount of documents now lost.
The first part is a history of Buddhism in India beginning with the life of the Buddha, the rise of various schools of Buddhism, the lives of great philosophers and masters, the destruction of Nalanda and other monasteries, siddhas, evolution of grammar) metaphysics, medicine, and poetry. Detailed list of contents provides ready access to any topic. The Index at the end gives a summary of the life of every person, place, monastery, and serves the purpose of an English translation of the Tibetan text.
The second part is the history of Buddhism in Tibet. The analytical list of contents in 26 pages is a resume of every item discussed in the Tibetan text. It is a veritable translation of the Tibetan text. Prof. Lokesh Chandra has added a detailed index of 33 pages so that every detail can be located at a glance.
For the last hundred years it has been a vade-mecum for the study of the rise and development of Buddhism both in India and in Tibet. It has been out of print for decades. This reprint with a continuous. pagination for ready reference and a newly prepared detailed index at the end of part II is a rich sourcebook for Buddhist studies in their multiple aspects, such as art and philosophy, sociology and history. Sumpa-khampo chronicles the flow of Buddhism throbbing with intense life) in new trends born in the pilgrimage to spiritual yearnIngs.
According to the early annals of China, the Hiungnu, (Huns), about the end of the third century B.C. had constituted a powerful Empire extending from the Great Wall of China to the Caspian Sea, but gradually falling into a state of anarchy, ultimately succumbed to the attacks of their enemies. At the close of the first century of Christ one section of this people advanced westward and exercised a formidable influence on the affairs of Europe. By 177 B.C. the Huns had occupied the country now called Mongolia.
In 409 A.D. the Huns are said to have crossed the Danube and invaded Bulgaria. Their ravages extended to further westward. In 432 A.D. they received from Theodosius II, an annual tribute of 14,000 pounds of gold. Another section, about the time they had reached the climax of their power, came towards Kashmir and. the Punjab. In 431 A.D. Mihirktul and other leaders of the Huns (Huna) ravaged North-Western India. Buddha Gupta, of the Gupat dynasty, who reigned in the beginning of the fifth century A.D., was completely defeated by the Conqueror Toraman, and his, kingdom was overrun by the Huns who settling in India, gradually 'became incorporated in the Hindu society.
Their descendants in course of time came to be regarded as the best of the Ksetriya race. The word "Mir" which occurs in the names such as Kashmir, Pamir, Ajmir, Jesulmir, and other place names of Higher Asia and Central India, appears to have been left by the Huns. .Balamir was the Western Hun Conqueror who, about the year 372 A.D., with his numerous hordes, had advanced to the Roman wall which Trajan had erected in North-Eastern Dacia. After the death of Balamir, Attila became the leader of the Western Huns. He fought with the Romans and defeated them and made peace by which the tribute payable by the Romans was doubled. Advancing eastward Attila effected the conquest of the whole of the country then included in what was known as Scythia, and planned the conquest of Persia. It is stated that the depredations of the Huns extended to Media till A.D. 800. The-Tuku Huns were an eastern section of the Hiungnu Tartar race who derived their name from the Chief Tuku who migrated with 1,100 families towards the south west of China and settled finally in the neighbourhood of Kungchangfu in Shensi. His descendants extended their rule westwards as far as the borders of Khotan, until their territory measured 3,000 li from east to west and 1,000 li from north to south; extending on the east as far as the modern Hsinnig-fu. The capital was Fussucheng, situated 15 li' to the west of the Chinghai (lake Kokonor). They were finally conquered by the Tufan (Tibetans) in the third year of Lungso (663 A.D.) after ruling 350 years, and their sovereign Nohopo with his Chinese consort and the remnant of the people took refuge in China and were given lands near Ling Chou where Anlechbu was founded of which he was appointed Governor. Nohopo was the last of the Tuku Hun kings under whom the Huns became incorporated with the Chinese and whose kingdom was annexed by Tufan.
So the great Hun people who once occupied the steppes of Higher Asia became lost, being incorporated with the white people in Hungary, Bulgaria and Southern Russia, in Europe, with the Hindus as Ksatriyas in India, and with the Chinese as Mongols, one branch of which under the designation of Moguls reigned in India in later times. The remnant of this great race of warriors, according to Chinese history, became mixed up with the aboriginal tribes who about the third and fourth centuries of Christ were divided into about one hundred and fifty tribes whom the Chinese collectively designated by the general name Chiang (Tibetan tribes). The name Chiang is written in Chinese, with the character composed of "man" and "sheep" descriptive of their occupation as shepherds.
About the year 414 A.D. in the first period of Shenju,•Fanni, the chief representative of the Chiang tribes who had successfully governed Anhsi (Yarkand, Kashgar and other western countries) and afterwards Linsung (modem Kanchou) advanced at the head of his people, across the Yellow River (Hoangho), and beyond Chishih, founded a State in the midst of the Chiang tribes, with territory extending over a thousand li. Fanni was celebrated for his power and wisdom, and all the Chiang tribes placed themselves Under his rule, and being governed mildly and justly, joined his standard. Then he changed his surname to Sup'uyeh, and adopted Tufa as the name of his State. (The name Tufa afterwards became corrupted into Tufan. Tufa is the same as Tu.po or Tu-bo from which the name Tubot in Mongolian .and Tibet in English have been derived.) His descendants increased in number and power, and continued to acquire land and fame till their territory became vast. During the Chou and the Sui dynasties (557-618 A.D.), tbey did not care to communicate with China.
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