Hamsaraja Nidana’ is a text written by Acharya Hamsaraja in the time period between 15-17th Century A.D. The book was also well-known as ‘Bhishak Chakra Chittotsava’. Acharya Priyavrat Sharma opined that ‘Hamsarajeeya Vaidyaka’ was the other name of this text.
In the earlier manuscripts and publications, chapter wise distribution is done. Here in this translation work, for the first time, it is alienated into different chapters, placing the relative information o the similar disease under one heading.
Some of the unique diseases mentioned in this text are drishti jwara, Mala jwara, Kheda jwara, kapila jwara, bhasmavikshepa jwara, tripada jwara, pingaksha jwara, mahodara jwara, jwaladwigraha jwara, tarunya kaleena hikka, vardhakya kaleena hikka, atishwasa, vegarodhajanya udavarta, brahmani roga (retra roga) etc.
As mention in the foreword note of Prof. M.S. Baghel, the unique features referred in some of the contexts, attracts special attention towards this book.
Prof. M.S. Krishnamurthy is working as head of the Department, Post Graduate Dept. of Rasahastra and Bhaishjya Kalpana, Alva’s Ayurveda Medical College, Moodbidri (Karnataka). He has the professional experience of more than 13 years in the field of Ayurveda.
He is the awardees of ‘Bharatiya Vijana Parishad Puraskar’ (Delhi) in the year 2005 for his service in Ayurvedic academics and research achievement (2002-2005). He secured 2nd Rank and Gold medal in Under graduation from Kuvempu University in the year 1997-98. He completed his Post graduation from IPGT&R. Jamnagar (2002) and Ph.D. from NIA, Jaipur (2008).
The Author is the Founder Secretary of Srimuliya Rajahadri Ayurveda Seva Trust (R). Prof. Murthy is the approved PG and PhD. And PhD. Guide for Bhaishjya kalapana and Rasahastra by RGUHS. Bangalore and serving as examiner in various Ayurvedic Universities and Colleges.
He has the credit participation and presentation of papers in more than 40 National and International seminars. The author has published more than 16 scientific articles in Indexed journals and he has published 6 books.
I have opened the pages of 'Hamsaraja Nidana' quite eagerly, as it is a less explored text of Ayurvedic diagnosis. Even though some of the aetiological factors mentioned for few of the diseases are identical with the pathophysiology and syrnptomology found in other texts, unique features referred in some of the contexts, attracts special attention towards this book.
It is told that depending upon the aetiological factors, variations are found in the symptoms also. Hence, it becomes mandatory to know such special reasons of the illness and hence forth caused newer symptoms.
Prof. M.S. Krishnamurthy deserves special congratulation for the reason that, in each and every work he goes on unearthing the newer factors and concepts for the benefit of the students, researchers as well as practitioners.
Undoubtfully, I declare that this translation work will be appreciated by the students community and teaching faculty of Ayurveda as the text' Hamsaraja Nidana' explores newer dimension in few of the diseases, which are made clear by the translator Prof. Murthy in many instances.
I wish every success to the scholar and for his scholastic work. I appreciate the dedication and keen interest of the publishers in bringing this book to the lime light.
Examination of a patient and understanding the sufferings has not remained mere as a part of science and much skill is needed in this regard. An intelligent physician may be an expert of the diseases or any bodily systems. He may be a good orator or a teacher too; but, only a tactful physician can peep into the mind/heart of the individual/patient.
Ayurvedic classics mentioned this as 'Aturasya antaratmana pravesha '.
While understanding the illness, it is very essential to examine the disease with five factors- Roga nidana (aetiological factors of the disease), Raga poorvaroopa (prodromal symptoms or the illness). Roga lakshana (symptomatology), Roga upashaya-arutpashaya (prognostic fectors and differential diagnosis) and Roga samprapti (pathophysiology). For the most, the disease is understood only through its signs and symptoms. In its initial conditions the wise physician may diagnose the conditions even by prodromal signs (Poorvaroopai or by the complaints presented by the patient.
In all the diseases or discomforts, it is very essential to understand the probable reasons (nidana/he/u) in the illness. Because, it is told that the diseases (symptoms) are caused based upon the aetiological factors (of course. the knowledge of body strength/dha/u bala and dosha bala are also essential), as the cause determines the effect (karanarupo karya). In Ayurvedic classics also it is mentioned that' Rogamadau, pareeksheta, tato nantaramoushadham'.
Nidana or Hetu refers to the causative factors of the illness. Each and every disease has some of the general causative factors. Whereas, specific reasons will snow the disease with specific symptoms. Most of Ayurvedic texts explain the general causative factors and hence the general signs and symptoms. It is told that- "A good physician will treat the patients effectively; whereas, a wise physician will treat treat the patient hopefully'.
Primordial Ayurvedic texts like Charaka-Samhita, Sushtruta- Samhita, Ashtanga-Hridaya/Sangraha, Kashyapa Samhita etc. explain the various factors related to the diagnosis of the diseases. The symptoms mentioned in these texts are even though very elaborative, some of the signs and symptoms cannot be appreciated in all contexts or else, for a beginner, confusion may arise while arriving at the diagnosis of the cases. Acharya Madhavakara in his authentic text Madhava Nidana, compiled together the scattered literatures related to the five important factors of the disease. Due to its emphasis towards the pathophysiology/diagnosis of most of the diseases, it has got appreciation as authoritative text of Roga nidana i.e., 'Nidane Madhavaha shreshtaha'.
'Hamsaraja Nidana' is a similar text, written by Acharya Hamsaraja in the time period ranging between IS-17th Century. Acharya Hamsaraja was a great poet and a wise physician of that time'. At the end of each chapter one can find the colophony as' iti shree bhishakchakra chittotsava Hamsaraja krite vaidya shastre ... " hence one can derive that the text Hamsaraja Nidana is also referred as 'Bhishak chakra chittotsava' or else the latter is the original name of this medicinal text. Acharya Priyavrat Sharma opined that' Hamsarajaeeja Vaidyashastra' is another name of this text.
In the beginning verses of the text, the author Acharya Hamsaraja humbly submit that this compilation is carried after the thorough review of the texts composed by the great Acharyas like Atreya , Dhanvantari, Sushruta, Nasatya, Hareeta, Madhava, Sushena, Damodara, Vagbhata, Dasra, Swayambu, Charaka etc. He also submits his humble salutations to the great Acharyas like Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu, Shukracharya, Bharadwaja, Goutama, Hareeta, Charaka, Atreya, Brihaspati, Dhanwantari, Madhava, Nasatya, Nakula, Parashara, Damodara, Vagbhata etc. As the author refers Acharya Madhava (author of Madhava nidana/Madhavakara), Damodara (father of Acharya Sharangadhara?), the time period can be determined later to 14th century.
Overall review of the text confirms that most of the references are taken directly from the earlier texts. Some of the shlokas are modified and simplified by keeping the same versions of the earlier texts. In the available manuscripts and publications, chapter wise distribution is not mentioned. Here in this translation work, for the first time, it is alienated into different chapters, placing the relative information of the simple disease under one heading.
Special mentioning of the text
Some of the unique diseases mentioned in this text are as follows': Drishti jwara, Mala jwara, Khedajwara, Shapa jwara, Oushadha jwara, Shastrastragata jwara, Mahendrajwara. Vela jwara, Devakopajanita jwara, Twaggatavata jwara. Twaggatapitta jwara, Twaggata kaphaja jwara, Dhatupaki jwara. Bee bhatsa jwara, Trishira jwara. Kapila jwara, Bhasmavikshepa jwara, Tripada jwara, Pingaksha jwara, Mahodara jwara. .Jwaladwigraha jwara, Maharaja yakshma, Balya kaleena hikka, Tarunya kaleena hikka, Vardhakya kaleena hikka. Atishwasa. Vegarodhajanya udavarta, Brahmani roga (netra roga) etc.
I would like to express my gratitude to the earlier writers and publishers, who have immensely helped me in the preparation of this volume. My heart felt thanks are due to Yd. P. Rammanohar who helped me to get the text from one of the old book shop near Bodhgaya (1998). My sincere thanks are also due to Mr. Shankar Bhat Badanaje and Yd. Yenkatrama Daitota, who have provided' few of the manuscripts and literatures (hand written) related to the text Hamsaraja Nidana. The printed version of Hamsaraja Nidana, published earlier in Hindi with 'Hamsarajarthabodhini' commentary of Yaidya Dattarama, Mathura is complete with the appendices. But, few of the verses are not included/considered in the publication. (In the prologue (Bhoomika) of the book, the publisher of the edition (Manager, Tejkumar press, Hajaratganj, Luknow) mentioned that the text was earlier clarified and edited in the leadership of Shree Mahanmahopadhyay Dattarama Choubeji and the same 'Was published from the house of Mohaprada Yantralaya, Mumbai ), Further, in the revised edition of the same, Khoobchandasharma Goud made it clear that the efforts were carried during the revision to include the scattered informations related to the diseases. I am highly thankful and obliged for those editors and publishers, great endeavor gave me enough inputs to this work.
The available Kannada manuscripts helped me to complete those textual portions. Still some of the chapters need correction as well as completion.
I express my deep sense of gratitude to the preceptors Prof. M. S. Bhagel, Director of IPGT & R, Jamnagar, Prof. II. M. Chandola, Professor & Head of Roga Nidana and Vikriti Vijnana and Manasa Roga, IPGT & R. Jamnagar, Prof. R.R. Dwivedi. Professor & Head of Ayurveda Siddhanta and Sarnhita, Jamnagar 1'01' their direction to pick this task. I submit my mute reverence for their faith, guidance and blessing.
Prof. M.S. Bhagel. Director of IPGT & R. Jamnagar, has written valuable forewords to this book. His appraisal and creative criticism made the text more relevant for the readers as 'Well as scholars.
I am especially grateful to Prof. Dr. M. Mohan Alva, Chairman of Alvass Education Foundation (R), Moodbidri for honoring my request to write few words regarding this book.
My sincere thanks are also due to the Principal, Colleagues, and PG-l G Scholars of Alva's Ayurveda College. Moodbidri.
My special thanks are due to Prof. Dr. Sateesh Shringeri famous cartoonist of the time for designing an attractive cover page. I am also thankful to Prof. Dr. Ravi Rao and Mrs. Dr. Shubha Ravi Rao for their help and encouragement throughout this work.
I am blessed to be the son of noble parents Mr. Shankara Bhat, Muliya and Mrs. Gowri S. Bhat. I pay my obeisance and humble pranarns to their feet. Constant encouragement and caring of my wife Mrs. Padmashree and daughter Kumari. Maithree needs special mention, as their support keeps me cheerful and pleasant, my sincere thanks to them.
Sincere and dedicated efforts of Mr. Ashok Gupta and Mr. Sunil Gupta and their team members made this book so beautiful and meaningful. My special thanks are due to them.
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