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Books > Hindu > Vaishnav > The Guide Book to Decipher the Indus Script
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The Guide Book to Decipher the Indus Script
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The Guide Book to Decipher the Indus Script
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About the Book
Br. Sneh Rani Jain, B.Sc., M.Pharm., Ph.D. is the only so far known Decipherer of the Indus Texts who has meaningfully read the message of each Indus sign and given an elaborate Lexicon for the Indus Sign texts. Not only that, she has also explored more than 52 Indus keys and 25 unique Indus Jina Images that carry the Indus Texts on them. As a writer ? of this book she very skillfully leads the Readers through the Dogmatic meaning of each sign which functions as a symbol of the shramanic guide of the ancient most Indian ewligion.

Basically being a Faculty of Pharmacaeutical Sciences for almost 40 years and having specialty in Microbiology and Biotechnology at the University of Sagar, Saugar, M.P., India; she has not left even a single dot or streak unread of the Indus Texts seen by her.

She challenges that no one can decipher the Indus Script without taking help of the Jain Dogma and the traditional Jain Symbolic Expressions and feels sorry that the learned scholars are merely wasting time and energy following the other methods in vain.

Accepting the bold declared bet offer on Internet by Steve Farmer of US Dollar 10,000.00 she smiles and says that she can show a text of 43 Indus signs on a Jina Image and still longer lndus texts in the text-carpets inscribed on the bed rock of Shrawana Belagola if comes and wants to see them. She suggests that with no Taboos of Bias and Fear should any Epigraphist, Archaeologist or Historian should work on the issues of World Heritage like the Indus Culture and Indus Script leaving no approach unused. Then only can one reach and avail the essence of that rich and priceless heritage of mankind.

This book presents her independent arduous Research work of past several years and is her most precious gift to the Base Indus Archaeologists for their most valuable contribution on the Indus Valley Research.

Presenting Papers in each held History, Epigraphy and Archaeology Indian National Conference since 2001 she has drawn attention of the experts to the Theme expressions of the Indus Script. She has also written books namely: The Harappan Glory of Jinas, 2001; The Ethical Message of Indus Pictorial Script, 2002; Saindhav Pura Awashesh Ek Shashwat Abhivyanjana, 2002; The Seed Indus Rock of Karnataka, 2003; Itihaas Balta Hai, 2004; Saindhav Puralipi Men Dishaa Bodh, 2004; The Guide Book to Decipher the Indus Script, 2006, introduction to Jainism, 2006: Indus Keys and some Indus Jinas, 2006: Symbolic Expressions in Jain Tradition and Evolution of the Indus Sign Script with few more to come. Through International Seminars she has also acquainted her small audience with her new approach of deciphering the Indus script with no intent of hurting anyone's feelings but to explore the facts and bring them to light to help the Fellow Researchers.

Her earnest desire is that more work appears on parallel lines to compare the transliteration of the Indus themes so as to get the best message of the Indus Texts found any where.

Foreword

Indus Script is the most precious hidden treasure of 'the Indus Finds' found during the previous century at the various sites of Excavations including those of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. Not only on the Indus Finds, it lies open on rocks inscribed as single sign or texts and some times as carpets also, unread, down trodden being un-noticed and misunderstood as an ancient record of attendance / 'hajjari' of labour. It is seen in a very vast area of ancient past denoting its area of influence from Atlantic to Pacific shores making India as its key center, as evident now. Fascinated with its possible hidden message, scholars from all over world tried to read it looking for their connection with that root culture but even after their tireless effort for a whole century none could read it satisfactorily or correlate it. Struggling to find some keys nearby without any cultural background it was hard to recognize them, even though they were available there only, in ample. We begin here with such an Om shown on the cover page of this book.

The signs appear Pictorial as well as Conventional themes or the Ideograms. Only one appears as a Phonogram. Method of Rebus was applied to read them by majority of the scholars. But that too had to be having the Indian cultural background. Rebus application however, could not work with drastically differing regional languages when words for same object differ phonetically. The oldest Rig-Vedic text does not carry a single Indus sign in it. Yet, majority of the Indian linguists applied Indian indigenous Vedic approach while some applied Gayetri meter some Maheshwar sutra and others Anushtup meter to read it. None could read a single text meaningfully conveying any satisfactory information. R. Madhivanan has deciphered most of the Indus texts but only as names that too under stretch of imagination. Indus thinkers will give merely some ordinary names as message is not convincing especially when some Indus texts appear on Jina images too. Shri I. Mahadevanvery systematically gave out his Concordance classifying the texts and their sites with suffixes and prefixes, sorting out some signs for their most recurring combinations but he too could not grasp meaning of many signs convincingly, missing them with almost near periphery. Verma and Pathak with 'Karma Vinanti' reached near by but missed their theme marginally.

The discrepancy was as such many folds in the part of decipherers. First, that all the efforts of trying to read the Indus Sign script were made for it's phonetic value only. Secondly, the basis taken was of some resembling Alphabets in Brahmi, the grand daughter of the Indus Script. Thirdly, the parallel Shramanic Culture of the far ancient past was completely ignored knowing very well that there were Brahmanic as well as Shramanic cultures prevaling in the pre-Vedic ancient India. The total efforts were thus made to apply the much later evolved culture and philosophy on the Indus information. Rig-Veda does not mention of the Indus culture though it throughout mentions of Rishabh and Vrashabh, of Arhata, Naagna, Vaatarasna and even once of Arishtanemi. Wherefrom could these names come to the Vedic world leads the explorers to clue, but missed wholly.

Luckily, some keys are seen inscribed on rocks so also on some Jina images to convey the meaning of the Indus signs in relation to the Jinas. Hence, it has become very easy to correlate the long lost past taking help of the traditional symbolic expressions of Jain dogma. To our support each sign has related text expression in the Jain scriptures. Hence, it became very easy to establish a sign Index, each sign not being an alphabet but a full theme with deep analytical explanation in the Jain philosophy. Thus the available texts could be read without any stretch of imagination. Thoughts have great value in the Jain philosophy to lead entrapment of Soul by the karmas. No other philosophy cares on the thought or Leshya aspect with reference to their flags as in Jainism. That appears as the basis and background of the Indus seals along with their Field model, which is an animal used as a symbol of some Tirthankara near the Jina flag denoting Leshyas, being under whose shelter the message is inscribed on the seals. Effort is made here to read seals for their text theme along with the other features shown as dots, streaks etc. not caring for phonation values. This research work of linguistic importance is left for other decipherers to care and lead. Receiving the message thus this presentation takes the composition aspect of the seals to decipher the valuable sign texts in terms of thought values I Leshya effect as the methodology for deciphering.

The gist of the Leshya theme is often expressed in Jain temples through a simple picture story of the six by-passers, who seeing a fruited Plumb tree wished to eat the tasty fruits. One started collecting the ripe fruits from the ground, the other climbed on the tree to pluck the ripe ones; the third climbed up and plucked bunches wasting some raw ones. The fourth shook the branches and damaged some twigs when many raw fruits also got wasted. The fifth broke the branches and damaged the tree to get few tasty fruits but the sixth being mean and selfish brought an axe to cut down the tree from its stem to get the fruits in plenty; only for self. The reader himself can decide and match the Leshya of his own preference. Majority of the Jain stories are presented in the Jain temples as beautiful pictures to guide and lead the visitors in Jain philosophy and the Jain way of life to live as devoted shrawaklshrawika. Jain terminology is very logical and expressive. Readers are advised to get acquainted with that Jain terminology and the Jain Philosophy along with its shramanic traditions to receive the most precious message of that root Indus past. Unfortunately, the words of the Jain doctrine have no English equivalents as they are only in early Prakrat or later in Sanskrit languages hence the interpretations of all the Indus signs are given in a separate sign Index. The Jain scriptural texts mention the fundamentals of Jain philosophy and reflect the ancient Jain shraman tradition visible in the Indus texts fully matching in sequence with the Jain metaphysics, without any stretch of imagination to help the readers in understanding the Indus texts. This book brings information to its readers acquainting them with the formation of some of the signs also like Om, the Jain metaphysics being the backbone of this script. A fresh sign lists with Jaina concept is made.

Introduction

Deciphering the script does not mean mere assigning phonation to signs but to get their message. Language gets form through meaningful phonation for gestures, signs, lights as signals, sounds, designs to frame alphabets etc. to communicate. Language relates speech while script reflects advancements made in its text expression. The so far unknown Indus script can not be deciphered successfully until its message is received sensibly without any' stretch of imagination. Some of the Indus signs resemble few routine Jain symbols in practice of Jain puja. Jain religion is a sanatan way of living and carries traditional symbolic expressions for themes, in stead of long narrations since hoary past, especially by the shramans who mostly practice silence/ maun. India is famous for its two most ancient religious cultures: the Shramanism and the Brahmanism since the pre-Buddha period. With lapse of time shramanism got mistaken only with Buddhist Bhikkhus and hence, misconceived as a rather much later religion for lack of scriptural evidences lying hidden earlier. Vedas, and specially Rig- Veda being the so far known oldest Indian religious text mentioning of Rishabh and Vrashabh and even Arishtanemi is considered as a Brahmanic scripture by the majority of the Historians, who after Gautam Buddha lay great importance to the Ashokan Rock edicts. Doing so, the historians have neglected severely even Ashoka's grand-father and the first mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya who during his reign managed very skillfully his political relations with Alexander and made close contacts with Greece. He continued a sound democracy prevailing in the then Bharatvarsh (India) till to the immediate post-Mahavir period also. He supported ascetics and finally himself became a staunch Jina shraman at the pious shelter of his guru Acharya Bhadrabahu leaving the reign in hands of his advising minister Chanakya-I and giving throne to his son, Bindusar. For many years he led the shraman sangha and died as a Jain ascetic. Invent of cave temples of Tamil Nadu has revealed many facts on prevalence of Jain shramanism even earlier to Mahavir. The Meenakshi temple of Madurai, the Nagarkovil Temple, Kanchipuram Temple center and the famous Balaji temple were originally all famous Jain temples of earlier pre-mahavir periods in south with images of Jina therein. Tanjore was a big centre of Jains in the l're-Mahavir period. Nikkantas and Ammanan samanas were residing in Palli and Kottam before Buddha and moved also to Sri Lanka through Tamil Nadu. Mahavansha mentions that during the reign of king Pandugabhaya a giri (Sigiriya?) was constructed in the capital of Anuradhapura for Jain saints before 5th century Be. Buddhism entered Ceylon only with Emperor Ashok's son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra. A Jain scripture named vividh tirthkalpa written by Jinaprabha Suri mentioning the ancient Jain pilgrimage sites describes images of Parswanath and Padmawati of Sinhal deevammi sampatto in the shri Parshwanathasya Kalpa.

The ruins of Vaishali, the kingdom of Mahavir's grand-father and Ahichhatra, the kingdom of king Drupad, as settlements of democrats of even earlier periods have emerged to our knowledge. Mattura and Nalanda excavations already give information of the rich Jain centers as ancient heritage of the pre-Christian Eras of India. Very little is known yet to people in India or abroad about Jainism as the original shramanism, Jains being in an utter minority, though holding the richest Indian cultural heritage. All the places pre-fixed with Tiru-/Thiru- were the ancient Jain sites. The famous Tirukkural and Tholkappium grammer were works of pre-Brahmin influence. Naladiyar was written by some 8000 Jain ascetics who deserted the Pandya domain against the wish of Pandya king. Champak Laxami very mildly reveals some very sensitive facts on the spread of Hinduism in the Jain sangam influenced area of the southern part of India. The cave centers like of Thirumallai, Sittral and Kalugualmalai reveal ancient images of Neminath and penta-hooded umbrellad Suparshwanath of Pre- Parswanath heritage.

Majority scriptural literature of shramanism exists in Prakrit with few later translations as additions in the regional Indian languages or in Sanskrit and Hindi with only few written in English. Some books do give enough information to get acquainted with it, specially written by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Dr. Hira lal Jain, Dr. P. S. Jaini, S. C. Diwakar, C. R. Jain and some of the other European and Western scholars like Kuhn and Kurt Titze good for use by the quisitive readers to know the abc of Jainism in general. Yet an encyclopaedia is a need because of the hired Jain terminology with totally different concept, used in the other later religions causing great confusion to the readers.

Dr. P. S. Jaini in his book: 'The Jain Path of Purification' describes how the material evidences push the historical date of Jainism to the 9th century BC at least as to the period of Parshwanath, the twenty-third Jina of the Jains. The Buddhist Literature also supports evidences of the nirgranthas much earlier to Buddha like Rig-Veda mentioning of Rishabh and Arhata. Gautam siddharth initially took renunciation from a Jain guru ascetic Pihitasrava and wandered sky clad in sangha for six years like Mahavir prior to beginning of his middle path of penance. Jacobi gives a good account of the Jain history of the patriarchate, from Jambu swami to Bhadrabahu while Winternitz so also Schubring and Buehler give good History of the Jain literature. Jainism in the Global Perspective Edited by Prof. Sagarmal Jain and published by Parshwanath Vidyapith, Varanasi, India, 1998 also gives a general introduction of Jainism supporting John E. Cort's analysis on Jainism for declaring it as an independent religion of India. Many historians however, present a very poor knowledge and ignorance about this very root religion of India inspite of its longest standing evidenced so far, also supported by the Indus texts and its richest heritage now in light.

Amongst the majority Hindu lead community of India, Muslims, Christians and Sikhs occupy preferential stands equal to Buddhists when Jews and Jains are left out in minority. However, for their ancient heritage the Jain heritage stands as the richest and is found through out India as temple ruins and broken images filling the museums. Road side images of ruins and those converted in to pebbles have no account. The rock inscriptions are mostly forgotten and ignored as 'masson marks' without applying any thought and reasoning by archaeologists. The Jain monuments outnumber all the other monuments in India, many already been converted in to Buddhist sites, Hindu Temples and mosques. Their remains still show reflection of the Jina Images; some saved under odd conditions and continue to be worshipped in the later built temples along with the newer images. For having their miracle importance (Atishaya) often Hindu devotees also worship them and try to overtake the Jain temples gradually calling Jains as branch of Hindus. Claimed their right of worship and grabbed over them alike those of Balaji, Kedarnath, Puri, Girnar peak temples, Keshariaji, Meenakshi, Nagarkovil, temples and of several other sites like of Amer, Kolhapur, Pandharpur, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jhansi etc. No records are available of those Images already smuggled out of India. Often one hears of many of them gone stolen from the Jaina temples and many smuggled out of India. Archaeologists have no knowledge about them. Even when reported, occasionally by the viewers, no immediate attention and importance is given to loss of such items of priceless heritage. Often excavations bring out stores of ancient Jina Images here and there. This shows the enormous influence of that root religion in the past pushed in dark with lapse of time, now intentionally twisting the historical facts by the students of history.

The History of India, if evaluated carefully will be different from what is been taught to us so far with the deciphering of Indus texts. Indian history has been written on the presumptive accounts gathered from the diaries of much later visitors like Megasthenes, Hiouen Thsang, Yuan Chwang, Fa-Hien, Alberuni, Plutark, some Mughal rulers and Britishers as viewed mainly by those who neither knew about Indian culture nor of the Indian religions being from the other countries and cultures, all outsiders. Indian culture does not favor retaining of the dead bodies but cremating them on pyre when bones also get charred. With the ash remains bones are dropped in Ganges that dissolves them in almost six months. The Indian climate can not retain organic remains very long. Craze of ruling, wars, intentional manual damages, rains, floods, ants and weathering had their severe effects on the so called remains that could be of value as historical evidences and hence, evidences are now lacking except the Paleographical remains and the volcanic rocks, ruins, caves and cave temples, rock carvings and inscriptions and the related religious accounts as narrations, though traditions do give some land marks of belief. Rig-Veda is the oldest available written record so far best preserved.

**Book's Contents and Sample Pages**













The Guide Book to Decipher the Indus Script

Item Code:
NAP971
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PAPERBACK
Edition:
2006
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ISBN:
9788190614061
Language:
English
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11.00 X 8.50 inch
Pages:
289
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Weight of the Book: 0.6 Kg
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$35.00   Shipping Free
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About the Book
Br. Sneh Rani Jain, B.Sc., M.Pharm., Ph.D. is the only so far known Decipherer of the Indus Texts who has meaningfully read the message of each Indus sign and given an elaborate Lexicon for the Indus Sign texts. Not only that, she has also explored more than 52 Indus keys and 25 unique Indus Jina Images that carry the Indus Texts on them. As a writer ? of this book she very skillfully leads the Readers through the Dogmatic meaning of each sign which functions as a symbol of the shramanic guide of the ancient most Indian ewligion.

Basically being a Faculty of Pharmacaeutical Sciences for almost 40 years and having specialty in Microbiology and Biotechnology at the University of Sagar, Saugar, M.P., India; she has not left even a single dot or streak unread of the Indus Texts seen by her.

She challenges that no one can decipher the Indus Script without taking help of the Jain Dogma and the traditional Jain Symbolic Expressions and feels sorry that the learned scholars are merely wasting time and energy following the other methods in vain.

Accepting the bold declared bet offer on Internet by Steve Farmer of US Dollar 10,000.00 she smiles and says that she can show a text of 43 Indus signs on a Jina Image and still longer lndus texts in the text-carpets inscribed on the bed rock of Shrawana Belagola if comes and wants to see them. She suggests that with no Taboos of Bias and Fear should any Epigraphist, Archaeologist or Historian should work on the issues of World Heritage like the Indus Culture and Indus Script leaving no approach unused. Then only can one reach and avail the essence of that rich and priceless heritage of mankind.

This book presents her independent arduous Research work of past several years and is her most precious gift to the Base Indus Archaeologists for their most valuable contribution on the Indus Valley Research.

Presenting Papers in each held History, Epigraphy and Archaeology Indian National Conference since 2001 she has drawn attention of the experts to the Theme expressions of the Indus Script. She has also written books namely: The Harappan Glory of Jinas, 2001; The Ethical Message of Indus Pictorial Script, 2002; Saindhav Pura Awashesh Ek Shashwat Abhivyanjana, 2002; The Seed Indus Rock of Karnataka, 2003; Itihaas Balta Hai, 2004; Saindhav Puralipi Men Dishaa Bodh, 2004; The Guide Book to Decipher the Indus Script, 2006, introduction to Jainism, 2006: Indus Keys and some Indus Jinas, 2006: Symbolic Expressions in Jain Tradition and Evolution of the Indus Sign Script with few more to come. Through International Seminars she has also acquainted her small audience with her new approach of deciphering the Indus script with no intent of hurting anyone's feelings but to explore the facts and bring them to light to help the Fellow Researchers.

Her earnest desire is that more work appears on parallel lines to compare the transliteration of the Indus themes so as to get the best message of the Indus Texts found any where.

Foreword

Indus Script is the most precious hidden treasure of 'the Indus Finds' found during the previous century at the various sites of Excavations including those of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. Not only on the Indus Finds, it lies open on rocks inscribed as single sign or texts and some times as carpets also, unread, down trodden being un-noticed and misunderstood as an ancient record of attendance / 'hajjari' of labour. It is seen in a very vast area of ancient past denoting its area of influence from Atlantic to Pacific shores making India as its key center, as evident now. Fascinated with its possible hidden message, scholars from all over world tried to read it looking for their connection with that root culture but even after their tireless effort for a whole century none could read it satisfactorily or correlate it. Struggling to find some keys nearby without any cultural background it was hard to recognize them, even though they were available there only, in ample. We begin here with such an Om shown on the cover page of this book.

The signs appear Pictorial as well as Conventional themes or the Ideograms. Only one appears as a Phonogram. Method of Rebus was applied to read them by majority of the scholars. But that too had to be having the Indian cultural background. Rebus application however, could not work with drastically differing regional languages when words for same object differ phonetically. The oldest Rig-Vedic text does not carry a single Indus sign in it. Yet, majority of the Indian linguists applied Indian indigenous Vedic approach while some applied Gayetri meter some Maheshwar sutra and others Anushtup meter to read it. None could read a single text meaningfully conveying any satisfactory information. R. Madhivanan has deciphered most of the Indus texts but only as names that too under stretch of imagination. Indus thinkers will give merely some ordinary names as message is not convincing especially when some Indus texts appear on Jina images too. Shri I. Mahadevanvery systematically gave out his Concordance classifying the texts and their sites with suffixes and prefixes, sorting out some signs for their most recurring combinations but he too could not grasp meaning of many signs convincingly, missing them with almost near periphery. Verma and Pathak with 'Karma Vinanti' reached near by but missed their theme marginally.

The discrepancy was as such many folds in the part of decipherers. First, that all the efforts of trying to read the Indus Sign script were made for it's phonetic value only. Secondly, the basis taken was of some resembling Alphabets in Brahmi, the grand daughter of the Indus Script. Thirdly, the parallel Shramanic Culture of the far ancient past was completely ignored knowing very well that there were Brahmanic as well as Shramanic cultures prevaling in the pre-Vedic ancient India. The total efforts were thus made to apply the much later evolved culture and philosophy on the Indus information. Rig-Veda does not mention of the Indus culture though it throughout mentions of Rishabh and Vrashabh, of Arhata, Naagna, Vaatarasna and even once of Arishtanemi. Wherefrom could these names come to the Vedic world leads the explorers to clue, but missed wholly.

Luckily, some keys are seen inscribed on rocks so also on some Jina images to convey the meaning of the Indus signs in relation to the Jinas. Hence, it has become very easy to correlate the long lost past taking help of the traditional symbolic expressions of Jain dogma. To our support each sign has related text expression in the Jain scriptures. Hence, it became very easy to establish a sign Index, each sign not being an alphabet but a full theme with deep analytical explanation in the Jain philosophy. Thus the available texts could be read without any stretch of imagination. Thoughts have great value in the Jain philosophy to lead entrapment of Soul by the karmas. No other philosophy cares on the thought or Leshya aspect with reference to their flags as in Jainism. That appears as the basis and background of the Indus seals along with their Field model, which is an animal used as a symbol of some Tirthankara near the Jina flag denoting Leshyas, being under whose shelter the message is inscribed on the seals. Effort is made here to read seals for their text theme along with the other features shown as dots, streaks etc. not caring for phonation values. This research work of linguistic importance is left for other decipherers to care and lead. Receiving the message thus this presentation takes the composition aspect of the seals to decipher the valuable sign texts in terms of thought values I Leshya effect as the methodology for deciphering.

The gist of the Leshya theme is often expressed in Jain temples through a simple picture story of the six by-passers, who seeing a fruited Plumb tree wished to eat the tasty fruits. One started collecting the ripe fruits from the ground, the other climbed on the tree to pluck the ripe ones; the third climbed up and plucked bunches wasting some raw ones. The fourth shook the branches and damaged some twigs when many raw fruits also got wasted. The fifth broke the branches and damaged the tree to get few tasty fruits but the sixth being mean and selfish brought an axe to cut down the tree from its stem to get the fruits in plenty; only for self. The reader himself can decide and match the Leshya of his own preference. Majority of the Jain stories are presented in the Jain temples as beautiful pictures to guide and lead the visitors in Jain philosophy and the Jain way of life to live as devoted shrawaklshrawika. Jain terminology is very logical and expressive. Readers are advised to get acquainted with that Jain terminology and the Jain Philosophy along with its shramanic traditions to receive the most precious message of that root Indus past. Unfortunately, the words of the Jain doctrine have no English equivalents as they are only in early Prakrat or later in Sanskrit languages hence the interpretations of all the Indus signs are given in a separate sign Index. The Jain scriptural texts mention the fundamentals of Jain philosophy and reflect the ancient Jain shraman tradition visible in the Indus texts fully matching in sequence with the Jain metaphysics, without any stretch of imagination to help the readers in understanding the Indus texts. This book brings information to its readers acquainting them with the formation of some of the signs also like Om, the Jain metaphysics being the backbone of this script. A fresh sign lists with Jaina concept is made.

Introduction

Deciphering the script does not mean mere assigning phonation to signs but to get their message. Language gets form through meaningful phonation for gestures, signs, lights as signals, sounds, designs to frame alphabets etc. to communicate. Language relates speech while script reflects advancements made in its text expression. The so far unknown Indus script can not be deciphered successfully until its message is received sensibly without any' stretch of imagination. Some of the Indus signs resemble few routine Jain symbols in practice of Jain puja. Jain religion is a sanatan way of living and carries traditional symbolic expressions for themes, in stead of long narrations since hoary past, especially by the shramans who mostly practice silence/ maun. India is famous for its two most ancient religious cultures: the Shramanism and the Brahmanism since the pre-Buddha period. With lapse of time shramanism got mistaken only with Buddhist Bhikkhus and hence, misconceived as a rather much later religion for lack of scriptural evidences lying hidden earlier. Vedas, and specially Rig- Veda being the so far known oldest Indian religious text mentioning of Rishabh and Vrashabh and even Arishtanemi is considered as a Brahmanic scripture by the majority of the Historians, who after Gautam Buddha lay great importance to the Ashokan Rock edicts. Doing so, the historians have neglected severely even Ashoka's grand-father and the first mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya who during his reign managed very skillfully his political relations with Alexander and made close contacts with Greece. He continued a sound democracy prevailing in the then Bharatvarsh (India) till to the immediate post-Mahavir period also. He supported ascetics and finally himself became a staunch Jina shraman at the pious shelter of his guru Acharya Bhadrabahu leaving the reign in hands of his advising minister Chanakya-I and giving throne to his son, Bindusar. For many years he led the shraman sangha and died as a Jain ascetic. Invent of cave temples of Tamil Nadu has revealed many facts on prevalence of Jain shramanism even earlier to Mahavir. The Meenakshi temple of Madurai, the Nagarkovil Temple, Kanchipuram Temple center and the famous Balaji temple were originally all famous Jain temples of earlier pre-mahavir periods in south with images of Jina therein. Tanjore was a big centre of Jains in the l're-Mahavir period. Nikkantas and Ammanan samanas were residing in Palli and Kottam before Buddha and moved also to Sri Lanka through Tamil Nadu. Mahavansha mentions that during the reign of king Pandugabhaya a giri (Sigiriya?) was constructed in the capital of Anuradhapura for Jain saints before 5th century Be. Buddhism entered Ceylon only with Emperor Ashok's son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra. A Jain scripture named vividh tirthkalpa written by Jinaprabha Suri mentioning the ancient Jain pilgrimage sites describes images of Parswanath and Padmawati of Sinhal deevammi sampatto in the shri Parshwanathasya Kalpa.

The ruins of Vaishali, the kingdom of Mahavir's grand-father and Ahichhatra, the kingdom of king Drupad, as settlements of democrats of even earlier periods have emerged to our knowledge. Mattura and Nalanda excavations already give information of the rich Jain centers as ancient heritage of the pre-Christian Eras of India. Very little is known yet to people in India or abroad about Jainism as the original shramanism, Jains being in an utter minority, though holding the richest Indian cultural heritage. All the places pre-fixed with Tiru-/Thiru- were the ancient Jain sites. The famous Tirukkural and Tholkappium grammer were works of pre-Brahmin influence. Naladiyar was written by some 8000 Jain ascetics who deserted the Pandya domain against the wish of Pandya king. Champak Laxami very mildly reveals some very sensitive facts on the spread of Hinduism in the Jain sangam influenced area of the southern part of India. The cave centers like of Thirumallai, Sittral and Kalugualmalai reveal ancient images of Neminath and penta-hooded umbrellad Suparshwanath of Pre- Parswanath heritage.

Majority scriptural literature of shramanism exists in Prakrit with few later translations as additions in the regional Indian languages or in Sanskrit and Hindi with only few written in English. Some books do give enough information to get acquainted with it, specially written by Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Dr. Hira lal Jain, Dr. P. S. Jaini, S. C. Diwakar, C. R. Jain and some of the other European and Western scholars like Kuhn and Kurt Titze good for use by the quisitive readers to know the abc of Jainism in general. Yet an encyclopaedia is a need because of the hired Jain terminology with totally different concept, used in the other later religions causing great confusion to the readers.

Dr. P. S. Jaini in his book: 'The Jain Path of Purification' describes how the material evidences push the historical date of Jainism to the 9th century BC at least as to the period of Parshwanath, the twenty-third Jina of the Jains. The Buddhist Literature also supports evidences of the nirgranthas much earlier to Buddha like Rig-Veda mentioning of Rishabh and Arhata. Gautam siddharth initially took renunciation from a Jain guru ascetic Pihitasrava and wandered sky clad in sangha for six years like Mahavir prior to beginning of his middle path of penance. Jacobi gives a good account of the Jain history of the patriarchate, from Jambu swami to Bhadrabahu while Winternitz so also Schubring and Buehler give good History of the Jain literature. Jainism in the Global Perspective Edited by Prof. Sagarmal Jain and published by Parshwanath Vidyapith, Varanasi, India, 1998 also gives a general introduction of Jainism supporting John E. Cort's analysis on Jainism for declaring it as an independent religion of India. Many historians however, present a very poor knowledge and ignorance about this very root religion of India inspite of its longest standing evidenced so far, also supported by the Indus texts and its richest heritage now in light.

Amongst the majority Hindu lead community of India, Muslims, Christians and Sikhs occupy preferential stands equal to Buddhists when Jews and Jains are left out in minority. However, for their ancient heritage the Jain heritage stands as the richest and is found through out India as temple ruins and broken images filling the museums. Road side images of ruins and those converted in to pebbles have no account. The rock inscriptions are mostly forgotten and ignored as 'masson marks' without applying any thought and reasoning by archaeologists. The Jain monuments outnumber all the other monuments in India, many already been converted in to Buddhist sites, Hindu Temples and mosques. Their remains still show reflection of the Jina Images; some saved under odd conditions and continue to be worshipped in the later built temples along with the newer images. For having their miracle importance (Atishaya) often Hindu devotees also worship them and try to overtake the Jain temples gradually calling Jains as branch of Hindus. Claimed their right of worship and grabbed over them alike those of Balaji, Kedarnath, Puri, Girnar peak temples, Keshariaji, Meenakshi, Nagarkovil, temples and of several other sites like of Amer, Kolhapur, Pandharpur, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jhansi etc. No records are available of those Images already smuggled out of India. Often one hears of many of them gone stolen from the Jaina temples and many smuggled out of India. Archaeologists have no knowledge about them. Even when reported, occasionally by the viewers, no immediate attention and importance is given to loss of such items of priceless heritage. Often excavations bring out stores of ancient Jina Images here and there. This shows the enormous influence of that root religion in the past pushed in dark with lapse of time, now intentionally twisting the historical facts by the students of history.

The History of India, if evaluated carefully will be different from what is been taught to us so far with the deciphering of Indus texts. Indian history has been written on the presumptive accounts gathered from the diaries of much later visitors like Megasthenes, Hiouen Thsang, Yuan Chwang, Fa-Hien, Alberuni, Plutark, some Mughal rulers and Britishers as viewed mainly by those who neither knew about Indian culture nor of the Indian religions being from the other countries and cultures, all outsiders. Indian culture does not favor retaining of the dead bodies but cremating them on pyre when bones also get charred. With the ash remains bones are dropped in Ganges that dissolves them in almost six months. The Indian climate can not retain organic remains very long. Craze of ruling, wars, intentional manual damages, rains, floods, ants and weathering had their severe effects on the so called remains that could be of value as historical evidences and hence, evidences are now lacking except the Paleographical remains and the volcanic rocks, ruins, caves and cave temples, rock carvings and inscriptions and the related religious accounts as narrations, though traditions do give some land marks of belief. Rig-Veda is the oldest available written record so far best preserved.

**Book's Contents and Sample Pages**













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