The Garbhavyakarana explained in Sasirasthana of Sushrutasamhita is incorporated by the syllabus committee in Sanskrit language to unlock the hidden Sanskrit grammar in between the sentences, which would be a practice for Ayurvedic scholars in his primary stages of understanding Ayurveda. The same can be applied in their later stages when they start to read the Samhitas. As all the Ayurveda theorems (thought) has been expressed in Sanskrit language which binds by some grammatical rule. Present work is to incorporate the Paninian Grammar to understand the Ayurvedic textbooks in a proficient manner and the usefulness of Panini's grammar in the interpretation of Ayurvedic textbooks. The aim of the book is not to make an Ayurvedic student a grammarian instead enable them to recognize and apply the grammatical structures which are found in the textbooks and lay the foundation to understand the text in the accurate way.
About the Author
Dr. Debabrata Panda did his M.A. in Sanskrit and secured first class from the Centre of Advance Study in Sanskrit (C.A.S.S.), University of Pune, Maharashtra (2001-2003). He completed his M.Phil. from the department of Sanskrit, Pondicherry University, Pondichery (2004) and completed his Ph.D. (2009) on Advaita Vedanta under the guidance of Dr. K.E. Dharaneedharan. After the completion of doctoral studies he started to work as an Assistant Professor in Sanskrit in Rajiv Gandhi Ayurveda Medical College, Mahe since 2010. He has presented papers in several international and national conferences and also his Research articles have published in reputed national and international journals. He secured Gold Medal in his M.Phil. Degree and also the recipient of a prestigious scholarship by the Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial fund, New Delhi, while doing his doctoral studies in Advaita Vedanta.
He is also the author of a book named Adhyasabhasyavicharah (study on superimposition). Or. Shivshaktilal Sharma Ayurveda Medical College and Hospital, Ratlam, Madhyapradesh.
Ayurveda is a combination of two words Ayus means longevity/life and Veda means knowledge /science. So Ayurveda is the Science of Life. The knowledge about life is Ayurveda. The science that explains the symptoms, happy and unhappy features, favorable and unfavorable factors, long and short span of life, and also qualities, actions and .substances which favor and unfavor life is called Ayurveda.
Ayurveda is a part of Atharvaveda. Brahma composed me lakh verses and thousand chapters before creating the subjects. Then having seen the less intelligent and less life span of people immediately composed on eight divisions. that is as Shalya, Shalakya, Kayachikitsa, Bhutavidya, Koumarabhritya, Agadatantra, Rasayanatantra and Vajikaranatantra.
These eight branches have been compiled in systemtic ally structured Samhitas or compilations. The oldest existing documents on Ayurveda are Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and Ashtanga Samgraha collectively called is Brihattrayi and Sharngadhara Samhita, Bhavaprakasha md Madhava Nidana is called Laghutrayi.
Sub division of Sushruta Samhita
As per the subject matter the text Sushruta Samhita declares the division of chapters that is one hundred and twenty chapters in five sections. These are Sutra (concise section), Nidana (section dealing with the cause of diseases), Sharira (section on knowledge about body), Chikitsa (Section on treatment), Kalpa (section on toxicology) and rest of the subject matter is in Uttara sthana (supplementary/ additional section).
In these five sections, there are forty six chapters in Sutrasthana, sixteen in Nidanasthana, ten in Shareerasthana, forty chapters are in Chiktaasthana, eight chapters are in Kalpasthana, (and) sixty six chapters ate in that Uttarasthana.
Acharya Sushruta has dedicated tell chapters to the subject of Anatomy (section on knowledge about body), to gain knowledge of the component parts of human .body such as Cosmology, healthy and unhealthy condition of male and female reproductive components, development of Garbha, Anatomical description of Garbha, component parts of the body, explanation of each vital part, description of the Veins, Venesection, Arteries and Pregnancy are discussed in shareerasthana in a chronological order.
Among' these ten chapters of Shareerasthana this work is depicted on Garbhavyakarana (On Anatomical description of Garbha). CCIM has initiated the portion of Garbhavyakaran in the syllabus of Sanskrit for BAMS degree course all over the India, but no such book is available to teach the Samhita in ancient teaching method.
Importance of Garbhavyakarana
The combination of shuddha shukra and shonita which assume a .shape by soul, eight prakriti and sixteen vikriti in the uterus is called as garbha (foetus). Vyakarana means the development of the structure in a proper manner. Hence garbhavykarana means the development of the structure of garbha in proper manner. So understanding the development of garbha is possible when the structure has arranged in proper manner (systematically).
Method to learn the texts
The object of the present work is to incorporate the Paninian Grammar to understand the Ayurvedic textbooks in a proficient manner. This work is attempted to provide a lucid ancient teaching method for the clear distinction and in a way to establish usefulness of panini' s grammar in the interpretation of Ayurvedic textbooks.
While teaching the Laghusiddhanta-Koumudi to BAMS students, always students used to ask only one question i.e. what the necessity to learn the Laghusiddhanta-Koumudi is. Only reading and writing the Sanskrit scripts are enough for a BAMS student. Of course that is true. Ancient Indian wisdom and its knowledge systems are' not communicating properly to the students. They are not getting benefit from traditional educational environment, instead of that they are facing examination-oriented education from childhood onwards. Students are joining BAMS course to learn Ayurveda without prior exposure of Sanskrit knowledge.
Then it has blown in to my mind that learning Sanskrit grammar is not for Examination, but for proper learning of Ayurvedic science. Hence keeping thinking in mind, composed a book on Garbhavyakarana in which the application of Laghusiddhanta-Koumudi the device for proper learning is exemplified.
Analysis is being restricted in the interpretations of its meaning and contextual discussion by which one understands the textbooks thoroughly. But have been omitted the Tantra-yuktis the linkages and interrelations between one term or sutra, and other related parts of the texts for ease studying of a beginners.
The Samhitas could not be understood without the interpretation of textual ideas and their contextual discussion. Acharya Sushruta has introduced the method of interpretation (grahanashakti) in his discipline as word by word, -by quarter verse and by a full verse. And also states that throughout the time of instruction based on the student's capacity, the teacher should teach word by word, half of a verse, or a complete verse and make them repeat the same way again and again in a sequence, then made to combine them in a sequence, which occupies an important role to understand the textbooks clearly but how it is possible? It is impossible to compress all the concepts and interpretation of its meaning into a single discipline. Because the meanings explained in Samkhya, Nyaya, Vaiseshika and Grammar etc. are having narrated in the Ayurvedic textbooks in a concise form. Thus the need of interdisciplinary learning is highlighted and advised to learn directly from the authorities of each discipline.
Ayurveda theorems (thought) expressed in Sanskrit language, takes the form of sentences and the Sanskrit sentences consist of one word or of a series of words which binds by rules of grammar. Hence, for understanding the nature of word and gain the deep and exact knowledge in science, word has to be analyzed into the constituent parts. The aim of the book is not targeted on grammarians on Ayurvedic scientists, enabling them to recognize and apply the grammatical structures which are found in the textbooks and lay the foundation to understand the text in the accurate way.
There are six subdivisions in this book. The first subdivision named Garbhavyakarana-shareeropakrama deals with the introduction on garbha and the outline on eleven factors of life. In the second subdivision enlightened Sapta-twak-vivechanam there is a description on seven types of twak (skin). The third subdivision entitled Kala- vivechanam deals with the types and nature of kala. The fourth subdivision identified Ashaya-vivechanam discusses the origin of internal organs such as lung, liver, tongue, kidney etc. and also' discuss about the nature of heart. In the fifth subdivision named Nidra-vivechanam, talks about the nature of sleep and indication and contra indication of daytime sleeping has been discussed. The last subdivision certified Prakriti-vivechanam deals the Saareerika and Maanasika constitutions. Previous one speaks about the body and the succeeding corresponds to the mind. Based on predominance of the three doshas (vata, pitta and kapha) the Saaeerika Prakrti has been classified into seven. Likewise predominance of the three gunas (sattva, rajas and tamas) the Maanaseeka Prakrti has also been classified into three.
These subdivisions of fourth chapter called Garbhavyakarana has divided into six stages. Separating the word has laid down in first stage. Arranging the word has present in second stage. Meaning of the word has set in third stage. Translation of slokas or passages has put in fourth stage. Splitting-of the conjoint word, discussion about nominal and verbal stem; discussion about suffiexes, discussion about compound has specified in fifth stage and notes on anatomical terminology has ascribed in the last stage. So that student can obtain skill to study the Samhita.
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