Essentials of Ayurveda

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Item Code: IDI681
Author: Dr. L. P. Gupta
Publisher: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan
Edition: 2013
ISBN: 8170843448
Pages: 499
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 8.6" X 5.5
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Book Description


Before proceeding to discuss the several concepts basic to Ayurveda, it is necessary to secure a clear appreciation of its scope and purport. This is necessary as there is today considerable misunderstanding and confusion about this subject. A very large section of the people in India and abroad - both intellectuals and non-intellectuals - consider Ayurveda as 'herbal medicine'. The American Medical Association, for example, has described it as a "System of Herbal Medicine". There is a popular belief in this country that Ayurveda deals, more or less, with the treatment of chronic diseases, specially those given up as incurable by other prevalent systems, specially the modern medicine.

Many among the politicians, economists and administrators hold the view that if properly exploited, Ayurveda may prove to be a valuable source of cheap medical relief to a large majority of the people of the country, specially those who live in the rural areas to whom the benefits of modern (scientific) medicine are not easily accessible.

The votaries of modern medicine - both in India and Abroad-hold the view that the rich material medica of Ayurveda represents a veritable gold mine - an El - Dorado -for, was not the wonder drug Sarpagandha discovered from this source and, is it not possible that there may be many more such 'gems' in this system? In this view, the drugs described in Ayurveda and/or are prescribed by Vaidyas and Hakims with considerable benefit in their practice should be investigated on a priority basis and made available to international medicine. This view is, no doubt, true in part but not wholly for, without a proper and prior appreciation of the Ayurvedic concepts of drug composition, drug action and pathogenesis, a proper evaluation of these drugs may prove to be difficult, if not impossible. The experience gained in the field of 'indigenous drug research' during the last five or six decades has shown that drugs which have been employed with success by Vaidyas and Hakims in their practice were summarily rejected as useless by earlier scientific workers in this country. This, it is seen, is largely due to the fact that the selection of drugs for researches was made on a random basis and the reason why a drug was or a group of them were projected in the treatment of a particular disease syndrome by Ayurvedists, the Ayurvedic concepts of drug composition, drug action, the identity of the diseases for which they were meant etc., were completely ignored.

As regards the physical, chemical, physiological, pathological and therapeutic concepts of Ayurveda, the enlightened scientific opinion in the country has held that they are antideluvian-fit only to be studied as a part of history of medicine and/or exhibited in a museum of antiquities.

Among the votaries of Ayurveda, there is an orthodox section which is strongly of the view that Ayurveda is a complete science, perfect, sacrosanct and good for all times, this section considers that the fundamental and applied concepts of the system, derived as they are from divine sources, are beyond the scope of modern (materialistic) methods of scientific research. They, therefore, urge that the concepts of Ayurveda should be accepted as such, in good faith and without question.

Neither the one nor the other of the two extreme views, referred to in the foregoing, have to my knowledge, sat together to enquire, with a scientific open-mindedness, if the fundamental and applied concept of Ayurveda are of value today or are not. It has, however, to be stated that a few outstanding and brilliant scholars o modern sciences and medicine, who made a deep and critical study of Ayurveda were convinced that there exists in Ayurveda an excellent core of science which is capable of bearing a critical scientific scrutiny. They recognised Ayurveda as a science an as an art both-

As a Science-The Indian systems are undoubtedly scientific; their general principles and theories (both in subjects or preliminary scientific study like physics, physiology and the like, as also in the subjects of medical science proper, like pathology, medicine and so on) are quite rational and scientific.

As an Art- As practised at present, Indian systems are not self-sufficient. If we divide Medical Science broadly into two sections, viz., Medicine and Surgery, the Indian systems are, in the main, self-sufficient and efficient in Medicine, while in Surgery they are not.

As regards the basic concepts of Ayurveda them selves, viz., the pancamahabhutas, tridoshas and rasa, guna, virya, vipaka and prabhava, considerable confusion exists, largely due to the literal translation of these words prthvi, ap, tejas, vayu and akasa by the earlier European Orientalists and some of their contemporary Indian scholars, as earth, water, fire, air and ether respectively, and rasa, guna, virya, vipaka and prabhava as taste, quality, potency, special transformation and specific action respectively. In rendering these highly technical terms, in the manner referred to above, many among the early European Orientalists and some contemporary Indian Scholars had at the back of their mind, the Greek concepts of matter, humours, etc. in the view of these scholar, the physical, chemical, physiological, pathological and therapeutic concepts of Ayurveda represented the Indian version of the concepts of Aristotle, Leucippus, Leucritiuus, Hippocrates, Galen and other early Greek philosophers and savants of medicine - concepts which have since been exploded.

Even the well- known Indian scientists and patriot, late Sir P. C. Ray who was very critical of the attempts made by the earlier European Orientalists and some of the Indian contem-poraries to equate the ancient Greek theories of medicine with those of the Indian (Ayurvedic), cold not avoid the use of the terms wind, bile and phlegm to signify, vata, pitta and kapha respectively. It should, however, be said to his credit that he strongly felt that "Too much has been made of the resemblance between the Greek and Hindu theories and practice of medicine. The analogy is merely superficial and does not seem to bear a close examination. The Hindu system of medicine is based upon three humours - vata, pitta and kapha - whilst, that of the Greek is founded upon four humours, viz., blood, bile, water and phlegm - a cardinal point of difference. Quoting the high authority of Dr. Hoernale who disposed off the view that "the ancient Hindus borrowed their notions of humoral doctrines from Greek", as "an elaborate joke", Sir P. C. Ray observed that "These views are advanced by persons who cannot and will not see anything in India which can claim originality and authority". Stated in brief, the several and often conflicting views on what Ayurveda is, expressed by different groups of scholars in the recent past should remain one of the description of an elephant by the five proverbial blind man.

I submit that the correct approach to an intelligent understanding of the content and purport of Ayurveda is to refer, in the first instance, to the definitions and descriptions of the word Ayurveda furnished by the authors of the ancient Indian medical classics and the available important authoritative commentaries thereon.


Definition And Description of Ayurveda

The word Ayurveda is composed of two terms, 'Veda (knowledge/science). The word biology, which is also composed of to terms - 'bios' (life) and 'logos' (knowledge/science) conveys nearly the same idea. Susruta has defined Ayurveda as a science in which the knowledge of life exists or which deals with the knowledge or science of longevity.

Dalhana, an authoritative commentator of Susruta, has clarified this definition as under:-
(i) Ayuh (life) is a combination - complex of Sarira (body/soma), indriyas (senses - cognitive and conative), sattva (manas/psyche) and atma (soul/spirit). Ayurveda is, therefore, a science in which exists the knowledge of Sarira, indriyas, sattva and atma.

(ii) in the alternative, Ayurveda is the science that throws light on the phenomenon of life.

(iii) Ayurveda is a science which has analysed, discussed and described ayuh (life) in its different aspects.

it will become obvious, from the extracts above, that although life as such is a complex of body, senses, mind and soul, still each one of the four factors can, for convenience of study, be treated as separate and specialized fields.



In so far as Sarira (body/soma) concerned, the authors of all the ancient medical classics have described it as the basis of life and animation and that, it is composed of substances belonging to the five different species of matter - pancamhabhutas. In this view, the pancamahabhutas, in their several affectations, combine in different modes, under specific conditions, to compose the different basic structural and functional factors of the body - saptadhatus and tridoshas. Not only is the body, the material basis of life but the food that nourishes it is also similarly composed of the pancamahabhutas. After being properly digested and metabolised the pancabhutic elements of corresponding pancabhutic elements present in the body. Post-mortem disintegration is stated to result in the separation of these elements of the physical/material environment, i.e., the body is stated to attain pancatva. In a broad sense, therefore, the study of Sarira at a fundamental level, relates to what we call today as physics, chemistry, biology (including biophysics and bio-chemistry).



The second important factor of life is represented by the indriyas - five each of the jnanendriyas (cognitive organs) and karmendriyas (conative organs). This aspect of the science of life has been given the status o a speciality. I may, in passing, mention that, while according to Ayurveda, indriyas are considered to be composed of pancamahabhutas, the Darsana schools of thought, viz. Kapila Samkhya and Patanjala Yoga Darsana have treated the elements of indriyas as evolutes of ahamkara and sattvika ahamkara respectively. It may be noted, in contrast, that according to these important Darsanas, the pancamahabhutas represent the final evolutes of ahamkara and tamasika ahamkara respectively and they represent the matter-stuff that composes the manas and indriyas are qualitatively different from those that compose the dosas and dhatus. An important and significant point to note, in this connection, is that sattva, is an organs or apparatus, and it is composed of matter - extremely subtle in nature. Both Samkhya Darsana and Susruta have correlated the two sets of indriyas with sattva or manas. The latter is stated to determine and regulate the functions of the former.

The third and no less important ingredient of life, the sattva (mind), is a highly developed speciality of Ayurveda. The outlook and scope of Ayurveda is basically, psychosomatic. Ayurveda has repeatedly emphasized the role of mind in the maintenance of health and causation of disease. The examination of sattva in the diagnosis of diseases is one of ten 'musts' - the remaining nine being the dosa (function triad), dusya (tissues and tissue-nutrients), bala (the capacity to do physical work/exercise on the one hand and resistance to disease, on the other, kalam (time of the day and season), Prakrti (constitution and temperament), anala (the state of digestion and metabolism), vayah (age), satmya (Conditioning to food, place and climate) and ahara (food habits).

The darsanika and Ayurvedic concept of sattva can be described as essentially epiphenomenal in their outlook. It has been described variously as the eleventh indriya (sense-organ), antahakarana (internal instrument), etc. according to Kapila Samkhya, sattva is a direct evolute of ahamkara. This is also the case with the two sets of indriyas. The Patanjala school of darsanikas hold that both manas and indriyas represent the final evolute of satviki ahamkara. Caraka, like finite substance possessing atomic dimension. He is, however, one with Samkhyas and Susruta that though discrete and finite in nature, manas shares the characteristics of the two sets of indriyas. Regardless of the differences between one school and another, all schools darsanic and medical - agreed that manas is a material substance which is extremely subtle in nature. A whole science of mind exists in the darsanic and Ayurvedic literature.



The science of atma borders on the spiritual. While, according to both nirisvara (atheistic) and sesvara (theistic) schools of Samkhya, atma is held to be the element of animation. Without it, the evolution of matte is not possible which by implication means that every aspect of evolution - the inorganic and organic - microcosmic and macrocosmic - requires the presence of atma. Atma is present in the so-called non-living inorganic substances as it does in the living organic substances. The postulation of atma as an essential and invariable constituent of matter, regardless of whether it is a tanmatra, anu or, in modern parlance, atomic particles, atoms, molecules - inorganic or organic etc., becomes a logical necessity to explain the phenomenon of life. It will be agreed that the ultimate unit of matter of the living substance - protoplasm - is composed non -living mater - about 16 in number, viz. Hydrogen, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine, Iodine, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphur, Oxygen, Copper, Iron, Carbon, Silicon, Aluminium, Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Whereas the living protoplasm exhibits properties ascribed to life, its non - living constituents taken out separately do not.

This is based on the Samkhya postulate that "The effect is existent (in its cause), sine the non- existent cannot be produced; since everything cannot be produced from everything; since a potent cause produces that of which it is capable and, since effect is of the same nature as the cause…" According to Vijnana Bhiksu" nothing which was not already implicit in the causal gunas (karana gunas) can arise in karya gunas or effects. The manifestation of an effect is only its passage from potentiality to actuality - a stage in the process of parinama or transformation/evolution, from a possible future existence to an actual present existence.

The presence of atma even in the so-called non-living material substance is a logical necessity to explain the emergence of living things from the non-living. In this view, the process of evolution observed at the biological level is merely an extension of the process that has been going on all the time at the physical level. Life, consciousness, intelligence, etc. are neither accidental nor erratic but are only the actualization of the vital properties which were in a potential state in the less evolved forms of life and in the so-called lifeless matter that composes the matter-stuff of life -the protoplasm, i.e. the atoms, atomic particles, mass, energy, etc. the role of atmalpurusa in the evolution of the non-living and living can be compared to that of a catalyst. It will thus be seen that the postulation of atma as an essential ingredient of life becomes a greater necessity to explain the phenomenon, specially of the higher forms of life - the homosapiens - which are not only physical but also biological, they are not only biological but also psychological and, last but not the least, they are not only psychological but also spiritual. The integrated human being standing on the top rung of the ladder of evolution is a complex o the physical, sensual, mental and spiritual. An interaction among each one of the four components determines the behaviour pattern, health and disease o an individual. However, according to Ayurveda, atma does not come under the purview of chikitsa (therapeutics) a it has been posited as an immaterial or a non-mechanical factor which is independent of and contemporaneous to prakrti (matter). It is neither affected nor influenced by the things of the universe and functions, among others, as a saksi (witness).

It will now be seen that the concepts basic to the study of Ayurveda relate to (i) the sarira (body) including indriyas (sense organs), reflected in dosa, dhatu and mala Vijnana, (ii) sattva (mind) and (iii) atma (soul/spirit). For the convenience of study, specially the visista or specialised aspects of sarira (body/soma), it would be necessary to consider the physical - including chemical aspects - or in other words, the pancamahabhuta theory and certain aspects of Nyaya vaisesika system of natural philosophy. As regards the former, the concept of sthulabhutas and their constituent tanmatras, and in regard to the latter, the concept of paramanus, anus, and their samyoga and vibhaga together with different kinds of pakas have to be studied. It will further be seen that such a study will involve an analytical approach, starting with the body as a whole, than its different aspects viz., dosas, dusyas, malas, avayavas, bhautic constituents of the above - anus, paramanus, tanmatras, trigunas, namely, sattva, rajas and tamas.

This approach can be appreciated by taking into consider-ration some of the recent trends in the field of modern biology which can be summed up in the words of Paul Weisz thus; "Within the language of science, biology is an important dialect, permitting travel in the domain of living gations have been pushed into smaller and smaller realms. Some 100 to 150 years ago, when modern biology began, the chief interest was the whole plant or the whole animal, how it lived, where it could be found, and how it was related to other whole living things. Such studies have been carried on eversince, but in addition, techniques gradually become available for the investigation of progressively smaller parts of the whole, their structures, their functions and their relationships to one another. Thus, it happened that, during the past few decades, the frontiers of biology were pushed down to the chemical level. And while research with larger biological units continues as before, the newest biology attempts to interpret living operations in terms of the chemical which compose living creatures.

"Biology here merges with chemistry. Today there are already many signs that the next frontier will be the atoms which in their turn compose the chemicals, and biology tomorrow will undoubtedly merge with atomic physics. Such a trend is quite natural. For ultimately, living things are atomic things. Penultimately, they are chemical things, and only on a large scale are they plants and animals. In the last analysis, therefore, biology must attempt to show how atoms, and chemicals made out of atoms, are put together to form, on the one hand, something like a rock or a piece of metal and, on the other something like a flower or a human body."


Scope of Ayurveda

In the foregoing heading, the definitions and descriptions of Ayurveda has been dealt elaborately. But as regards its scope which refers to its practical utility, a reference to the discussion that is stated to have taken place between Dhanvantari and his disciple Sustuta will be to the points. Dhanvantari is stated to have told Susruta that the utility of Ayurveda can be grouped under two distinct heads viz. (1) the cure of disease in the afflicted and (ii) the protection of health in the healthy. Dalhana has amplified the above: thus (1) the cure of the disease in this context refers, in main, to both somatic and psychic ailments and also to the management of diseases which are not curable (yapya) and (iii) the promotion of longevity in the healthy by the use of rasayana. Caraka has, on the other hand, stated that the utility of Ayurveda lies in the maintenance of health in the healthy and the affording of relief to those afflicted with disease. Vagbhatta has observed that those who desire to live long to perform dharma (duties), artha or the benefits accruing out of duties well performed and sukha or enjoy pleasure, should earnestly practise the teaching of Ayurveda.

It will be seen from the foregoing that the scope of Ayurveda is not only curative but also preventive. It is also a way of life which ensures health.


  Definition And Description of Ayurveda 12
  Sarira 13
  Indriyas 14
  Sattva 14
  Atma 15
  Scope of Ayurveda 18
  (A) General View (Ayurvedic) 20
  Atma-Vada of Pariksi Maudgalya 28
  Sattva-Vada of Saraloma 29
  Rasa-Vada and Tridhatu-Vada of Varyovida 30
  Sad-Dhatu-Vada of Hirnyaksa Kausika 31
  Parampara-Vada of Kausika 32
  Karma-Vada of Bhadrakapya 32
  Swabhava-Vada of Bharadwaja 33
  Prajapati-Vada of Kankayana 35
  Kala-Vada of Bhiksu Atreya 36
  (B) Particular View (Darsanic) 37
  Padarthas 38
  Samanya 39
  Visesa 39
  Dravyas 40
  Nyaya-Vaisesika Theory of Atomic Combination 41
  Chemical Combination 45
  (a) Mono-Bhautic Compounds 45
  (i) Mono-Bhautic Compounds of The First Order 45
  (ii) Mono-Bhautic Compounds of The Higher order 47
  (b) Hetro-Bhautic-Quasi-Compounds 48
  Bi-Bhautic Quasi-Compounds With Ap as Energiser 50
  Panca Mahabhutas 51
  Beginning of The Evolution 53
  The Formula of Evolution 53
  Evolution o Matter 56
  Vedantic View of Genesis of Atoms of Mahabhutas 61
  Dik or Space 63
  Kala or Time 64
  Manas (Mind) 65
  Atma or Purusa 68
  Karya Dravyas and Their Pancabhautikatva 73
  Bhutas and Diverse Kinds of Karya Dravyas 73
  Five Bhutas and Their Qualities 74
  Elementary Nature of The Bhutas 77
  Definition of Bhutas 78
  Does Bhuta Differ From Mahabhutas ? 78
  Uttarottara And Anyonyanupravesa 79
  Evolution of Bhutas 80
  Bhautika Classification of Karya Dravyas 22
  Atomic Theory of Anu-Vada of Nyaya-Vaisesika System 80
  Genesis of The Atoms 83
  (A) The Sankhya view 83
  (B) The Vedanta view 84
  (C) Ayurvedic view 85
  Applied Aspects of The Theory of Pancamahabhutas 86
  Functions of The Three Dhatus 96
  Vata, Pitta And Kapha in The Smallest Living Unit - The Cell. 98
  The Pitta Dhatu 100
  (1) Pacaka Pitta 101
  (2) Ranjaka Pitta 102
  (3) Sadhaka Pitta 103
  (4) Alocaka Pitta 104
  Slesma or Kapha Dhatu 105
  (1) Kledaka-Kapha 106
  (2) Avalambaka-Kapha 106
  (3) Bodhaka-Kapha 107
  (4) Tarpaka-Kapha 107
  (5) Slisaka-Kapha 107
  Vata-Dhatu 108
  (a) Nerves in Ancient Texts 110
  (b) Embryological Consideration of Vata 110
  (c) Composition of Vayu 111
  (d) Physical Properties 111
  (e) Location of Vayu 112
  (f) Classification of Vayu 114
  (g) Sarira Vata And Nervous Phenomenon 114
  General Functions 116
  Special Function of Normal Vayu 118
  1. Prana Vayu 119
  2. Udana Vayu 119
  3. Saman Vayu 119
  4. Vyana Vayu 120
  5. Apana Vayu 120
  The Abnormal Vayu 120
  Causes That Aggravate The Vayu 121
  Pathogenesis of Vayu 122
  Conclusion of Poona Conference 124
5 SAPTA-DHATUS (Seven Body Tissues) 129
  (A) Posaka or Sthayi-Dhatus 133
  (B) Physical Properties and Functions of Sapta-Dhatus 135
  (C) The Pattern of Distribution of Dhatus 135
  (D) Significance of 'Rasa' and 'Rakta' Dhatus 143
  (E) Plasma, Tissue-Fluid and Lymph of The Body 145
  (i) Plasma 146
  (ii) Interstitial Fluid 146
  (iii) Lymph 147
  (F) Sthayi-Dhatus (Sthira or Stable Dhatus) 148
6 MALAS (Body Waste Products) 152
  (A) Formation of Purisa (Faeces) 154
  (B) Mutra And Other Malas 157
  Rasa (Tastes) 162
  Gunas (Qualities or Properties) 163
  Virya (Dynamic Property or Active Principle) 163
  Kinds of Virya 164
  Vipaka (Digestive or Metabolic Change) 166
  Kinds of Vipaka (Digestive Changes) 167
  Action of Vipaka 169
  Prabhava: The Specific Action 169
  Relative and Mutual Actions of Rasadi Faculties 171
8 AGNI-VYPARA (Digestion and Metabolism) 174
  1 Pacakapitta 177
  2 Pitta And The Bill 179
  3 Ahara Pacana (Digestion of food) 180
  4 Avastha Paka 181
  5 The Prapaka 182
  (A) Madhura-Bhava of Prapaka 183
  (B) Amla-Bhava of Prapaka 183
  6 Jatharagni-Paka (Intestinal Digestion) 184
  7 Bhutagni-Paka 186
  8 Sajatiya And Vijatiya 188
  (C) Katu-Bhava of Avastha-paka 190
  9 Samana And Apana Vayu 191
  10 Dhatwagni-Paka (Metabolic Transformations) 193
  11 The Significance of Dhatwagni-Vyapar 195
  12 Dhatu-Vaha Stotansi (Subtle Channels of Posaka-dhatus) 199
  13 Distribution of Posaka-Dhatu 199
  (A) Ksira-Dadhi Nyaya 199
  (B) Kedari-Kulya Nyaya (The Law of Transmission) 200
  (C) Khale-Kapota Nyaya (The Law of Selectivity) 201
  14 The Formation of Dhatus-Time Factor 202
  15 Nistha-Paka 204
  16 Kayagni-Paka 205
  General Causes of Diseases 207
  (1) Asatmyendriyartha-Samyoga 208
  (i) Excessive Use of Sense Object 208
  (ii) Wrongful Use of Sense Object 208
  (iii) Non Use of Sense Object 209
  (2) Prajnaparadha (Mis-use of Intelligence) 209
  (3) Parinama (Improper functioning or manifestations of the climatic changes of the seasons) 210
  Classification of Diseases 210
  (i) Adi-Bala-Pravrtta (Originated from any primary inherent cause) 211
  (ii) Janamabala Pravrtta (Congenital) 211
  (iii) Dosa-Bala Pravrtta (Due to deranged body dosas) 211
  (iv) Samghata - Bala Pravrtta (Due to some extraneous causes) 212
  (v) Kala - Bala Pravrtta (Due to climatic and seasonal distemper) 212
  (vi) Daiva - Bala pravrtta (Divine or natural havocs) 212
  (vii) Svabhava-Bala Pravrtta (Physiological or Natural type) 212
  Whether Tridosas or Organisms are The Sole Agent for Producing The Diseaes 213
  Dosas and Diseases as Cause and Effect 214
  Definition 218
  Basis of Approach 219
  Mechanism of Immunity 220
  Ojas And Its Role in Body Risistance 221
  Classification 223
  Grades of Immunity 224
  Assessment 224
  Herd Infection and Herd Immunity 225
  Factors Effecting the Grades of Immunity 226
  (A) Lessening Factors 226
  (B) Enhancing Factors 227
  Measures to Maintain or Upgrade The Natural Body Resestance 227
  (A) Significance of Natural Immunity 227
  (B) Urjaskara Therapy 228
  Fundamentals of Vaccine and Serum Therapies 228
  Subtle Body (Soul) And Its Causation 230
  Samskaras And Vasanas 232
  Law of Natural Selection 234
  Theory of Re-incarnation 234
  (a) Western Views 234
  (b) Vedic and Darsanic Views 237
  (c) Ayurvedic View 241
  Remembrance of Previous Existence And Its Relation With Soul 244
  Origin & Scope 258
  Epistemology 258
  Metaphysics 260
  Ethics 261
  Origin and Scope 263
  Epistemology 264
  Metaphysics 265
  (A) Conception of Substances 266
  (B) Classification 266
  (i) The Soul or Jiva 268
  (ii) Ajivas 268
  (a) Matter 268
  (b) Akasa or Space 269
  (c) Kala (Time) 269
  (d) Dharma & Adharma 269
  The Jain Ethics and Religion 270
  (A) Bondage of Soul 270
  (B) Liberation 271
  (C) Jainism as a Religion Without God 274
  The Teachings of Buddha - The Four Noble  
  Truths: (Anti Metaphysical Attitude) 277
  (1) The Sufferings: (The First Noble Truth) 277
  (2) Cause of Suffering:  
  (The Second Noble Truth) 278
  (3) The Cessation of Sufferings:  
  (The Third Noble Truth) 279
  (3) The Path of Liberation:  
  (The Fourth Noble Truth) 280
  The Philosophical Implications of Buddha's Ethical Teachings 283
  (1) The Theory of Dependent Origination 283
  (2) The Theory of Karma 283
  (3) The Theory of Change 283
  (4) The Theory of Non-Existence of Soul 284
  The Schools of Buddha Philosophy 285
  (1) The Madhyamika School of Sunya-Vada 286
  (2) The Yogacara School of Subjective Idealism 287
  (3) The Sautrantik School of Representationism 289
  (4) The Vaibhasika School 289
  The Religious School of Buddhism 290
  (a) The Ideal of Bodhisattva 291
  (b) Buddha as God 291
  (c) The Restoration of The Self 292
  Avayavas (categorise) 294
  Pardarthas 294
  Pramana (Means of Knowledge) 295
  Definition of Classification of Knowledge 296
  (1) Pratyaksa (Direct Perception) 297
  (A) Definition 297
  (B) Classification 297
  (C) Modes of Perception 300
  (2) Anumana (Inference) 300
  (A) Constituents of Anumana 301
  (B) The Grounds of Anumana (Inference) 302
  (C) The Classification of Anuman (Inference) 305
  (D) The Fallacies of Inference (Hetvabhasa) 305
  (3) Upamana (Comparison) 307
  (4) Sabda (Testimony) 307
  Prameya (Objects of Knowledge) 308
  Individual Self (Jivatma) And its Liberation 309
  The Nyaya Theology 310
  (1) The Idea of God 310
  (2) Proofs For The Existence of God 311
  (a) The Causal Argument 311
  (b) The Argument From Adrsta 312
  tativeness of the Scriptures 313
  (d) The Testimony of Sruti 313
  (3) Anti-Theistic Arguments 314
  (4) Sarira (Body) 315
  (5) Organs of Senses 316
  (6) The Manas (Mind) 316
  (7) Moksa (Liberation) 316
  The Categories 317
  (1) Dravya (Substances) 318
  Pancamahabhutas 318
  Dik (Space) 319
  Kala (Time) 320
  Atma (Soul) 320
  Manas (Mind) 321
  (2) Guna (Qualities) 321
  (3) Karma (Action) 323
  (4) Samanya (Generality) 324
  (5) Visesa (Particularity) 325
  (6) Samavaya (Inherence) 325
  (7) Abhava (Non-existence) 326
  (a) Samsargabhava 326
  (b) Anyonyabhava (Negation of Identity) 327
  The Creation And Destruction of The World 327
  (a) Atomic Theory 328
  (b) Arambha-Vada 328
  (c) Seswara-Vada 329
  The Theory of Atomic Agglomeration 329
  (a) Pilupaka-Vada (Chemical Theory) 329
  (b) Pitharapaka (Physical Change) 330
  Navya-Nyaya System 331
  (a) Synthesis of Nyaya And Vaisesika 332
  (b) Historical Basis of Its Epistemological Growth 333
  (1) The Sankhya Metaphysics 336
  (A) Theory of Causation 336
  (B) Prakrti and Gunas 338
  (i) Prakrti 338
  (ii) Gunas 339
  (iii) Pralaya or Dissolution 341
  (C) Purusa (The Self) 342
  (D) Evolution of The World 344
  (a) Mahat 345
  (b) Ahankara 346
  (c) Indryas 346
  (d) Mahabhutas 348
  The Sankhya Theory of Knowledge 350
  The Doctrine of Liberation 352
  The Problem of God 354
  Yoga Psychology 357
  Modifications of Citta 358
  Yoga Ethics 360
  Nature and Forms of Yoga 360
  The Eight-Fold Means or Eight-Steps of Yoga 362
  (i) Yama or Restraint 362
  (ii) Niyama (Culture) 363
  (iii) Asana (Posture) 363
  (iv) Pranayama (Breath Control) 364
  (v) Pratyahara (Withdrawal of Senses) 364
  (vi) Dharana (Attention) 364
  (vii) Dhyana (Meditation) 365
  (viii) Samadhi (Concentration) 365
  The Place of God in The Yoga 365
  (1) The Mimamsa Theory of Knowledge 369
  (A) The Nature And Source of Knowledge 369
  (B) Non - Perceptual Sources of Knowledge 370
  (i) Anumana (Inference) 370
  (ii) Upamana (Comparison) 371
  (iii) Sabda (Authority of Testimony) 372
  (iv) Arthapatti (Postulation) 374
  (v) Anupalabdhi (Non perception) 375
  (C) Validity of Knowledge 376
  (D) The Error 378
  (2) Mimamsa Metaphysics 379
  (a) General Outlook of The World 379
  (b) The Theory of Potential Energy (Sakti and Apurva) 380
  (c) The conception of Soul 381
  (3) The Religion And Ethics 382
  (A) The Place of Vedas in Religion 382
  (B) The Conception of Duty 382
  (C) The Highest Good 383
  (D) Theistic And Atheistic Position of Mimamsa 384
  (1) The Literature And Schools of Vedants 387
  (A) Origin and Development of Vedanta 387
  (B) Followers of The Vedanta 388
  (C) The Problems on Which The Schools of Vedanta Differ 388
  (2) Development of The Vedant Through  
  The Vedas and Upanisads 389
  (A) Conception of Gods And Nature 389
  (B) Vedic Views About Number of God 390
  (C) Absence of Philosophical Base in Vedas 392
  (D) Problems of Upanisads 392
  (E) Believe in All Pervasive Brahman or Atman 393
  (F) Creation of The World Out of Brahman or Atman 395
  (3) Unanimous Views of The Main Schools of The Vedanta 397
  (I) The Monism of Sankara (Advaita) 401
  (a) Maya 402
  (b) The Process of Creation 403
  (2) Sankara's Conception of God 404
  (3) Sankara's Conception o The Self, Bondage and Liberation 408
  (a) Self 408
  (b) Bondage 409
  (c) Liberation 411
  (II) The Qualified Monism of Ramanuja (Visistadvaita) 413
  (1) Ramanuja's Conception of The World 413
  (2) Ramanuja's Conception of God 415
  (3) Ramanuja's Conception of The Self  
  Bondage And Liberation 417
  (a) Self 417
  (b) Bondage 417
  (c) Liberation 418
  (III) The Dualism of Madhavacarya (Dvaita) 419
  (1) Bhakti 420
  (2) Pramanas 420
  (3) Bheda (Difference) 421
  (4) Pervasiveness of the Supreme Being 421
  (5) The Different Jivas 421
  (6) Samsara 421
  (7) Karma 424
  (8) Incarnation 424
  (9) Mukti 424
  (10) Table of Categories 424
  (a) General View (Western and Eastern) 429
  (b) Development of Hindu Medicine 435
  (a) The Pre-Vedic Period 441
  (b) Vedic Period 443
  (a) Creator's Age  
  (b) Scientific Period 449
  (c) Transmutor's Age 455
  (d) Transmitter's Age 457
4 DARK PERIOD OR NON-CREATIVE PERIOD (Spread of Western Civilization in India) 460
  1 Table of Evolution 59
  2 Physical Properites and Functions of Sapta-Dhatus 136
  3 Posaka-Dhatus And Formation of Waste Products 159
  4 Relation Between Rasa And Vipakas 185
  5 Schematic Classification 267
  6 Table of Categories 422
  1 Course of Evolution According to Sankhya System 54
  2 Evolution of Prakrti 249
  1 Genesis of Atom Fig. 1 83
  2 Genesis of Atom Fig. 2 85
  3 Genesis of Atom Fig. 3 86

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