The volumes of the PROJECT ON THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY AND CULUTURE IN INDIAN CIVILIZATION aim at discovering the main aspects of India's heritage and present them in an interrelated way. These volumes in spite of their unitary look, recognize the difference between the areas of material civilization and those of ideational culture. The project is not being executed by a single group of thinkers and writers who are methodologically uniform or ideologically identical in their commitments. In fact contributions are made by different scholars with different ideological persuasions and methodological approaches. The Project is marked by what may be called methodological pluralism.
In spite of its primary historical character, this Project both in its conceptualization and execution has been shaped by many scholars drawn from different disciplines. It is for the first time that an endeavour of such a unique and comprehensive character has been undertaken to study critically a major world civilization like India.
The jiva who lives in the world is the enworlded subjectivity. The concept of the enworlded subjectivity interrelates consciousness, science, society, value and yoga. Every individual who is placed in this world becomes an enworlded subjectivity encountering and experiencing three worlds as explained by the upnisads in the Indian tradition and by proper in the west. The four sections in this volume bring out the nature, status and function of the indicidual in relation to society on the one hand, and its achievements, values and aspirations on the other. The message of this volume is that the human beings, though rooted in the transactional world, endeavour to achieve transcendence of their finitude from time to time but also formulates the technique for realizing the primal Spirit through the vision of oneness. The end of the journey takes us to the point from which the journey was started.
About the Editor:
D. P. CHATTOPADHYAYA studied law , philosophy and history and taught at various Universities in India, Aisa, Europe and USA from 1954 to 1994. founder chairman of the Indian Council of Philosophical research and president-cum-chairman of the Indian institute of advanced study, shimla (1984-1991), he is currently the Project Director of the Multidisciplinary 96-Vol. Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy and culture and chairman of the Centre for studies in Civilizations. Among his 34 publications authored 17 and edited17 are Individuals and Societies , individuals and Worlds , Sri Aurobindo and Karl Marx (1988), anthropology and Historiography of Science(1990), value and Civilizational Dialogue (2002), and Philosophy of Science, and other essays (2003). Besides he has also held high public offices like Union Cabinet Ministership and State Governship.
R. BALASUBRAMANIAN Ph. D. a specialist in Advaita, Phenomenology and Existentialism. Started his career in 1950. He taught in Besant Theosophical college, Vivekanada College and Annamalai University before joining the faculty of Radhakrishnan Institute for Advanced Study in Philosophy, University of Madras of which he was the Director for a number of years. He started Sri Aurobindo School of Eastern and Western thought at Pondicherry University and was its first Chairman for five years. He spent a year at Stanford University as a Fulbright and Smith- Mundt scholar for his post-doctoral studies. He was chairman of Indian council of Philosophical research for a term. He is at present Visiting Professor, Sri Aurobindo School of Eastern and Western Thought and President, Afro-Asian Philosophy Association. His Publications include Personalistic Existentialism of Berdyaev( 1970); Advaita Vedanta (1976); The Naiskarmya siddhi (1988); T. M. P. Mahadevan (1998)l Advaita Vedanta(2000); theistic Vedanta(2003).
After accepting the assignment to prepare a project volume on Consciousness science, society value and yoga, I began to think of the interrelation among these five entities which will be the subject matter of the volume. It occurred to me that all of them are interrelated through the jiva-in-the-world. Every individual who is placed in this world becomes an enworlded subjectivity encountering and experiencing three worlds as explained by the Upanisads in the Indian tradition and by popper and Eccles in the west. The four sections in this volume bring out the nature status and function of the individual in relation to society on the one hand and its achievements values and aspirations on the other. The message of this volume is that the human beings though rooted in the transactional world Endeavour to achieve transcendence of their finitude from time to time from stage to stage.
I acknowledge my indebtedness to Prof. D.P. Chattopadhyaya Director of the Project and Prof. Bhuvan Chandel, Project Coordinator for their support suggestions and guidance in the preparation of the volume. I express my sincere thanks to Shri S. Sreekumaran for his help and suggestion from time to time on the administrative side. Prof. V.K.S.N. Raghavan head of the Department of vaishnavism University of Madras helped me with his suggestions in structuring the volume. The volume is what it is because of the excellent contributions of the scholars who are specialists in their areas. I take this opportunity to thank all of them once again for their help and cooperation. The suggestions and comments of Ms. Bindu Menon Desk editor PHISPC were helpful to me in the preparation of the final draft of the script for which I am extremely thankful to her. Then I have to thank Jayanti for the care and patience shown by her in the preparation of the typescript wading through the waves of corrections coming one after another. Finally my thanks to my children who made me realize the meaning of the principle Don’t quit which is great guide of human life.
If one has to identify the central concept of a philosophical system which is total holistic and integrated then it is undoubtedly the concept of the Jiva-in-the world. though the term jiva means any living being from the tiniest blade of grass to the angelic being for the purpose of the present analysis we consider human beings as the paradigm not only because of the level and status attained by them in the evolutionary development but also because of the possession of what T.H. Green calls reason and will the two marvelous faculties which they make use of. Like other beings the humans are part of the world and contribute to its development diversification and enrichment. From this one should not draw the conclusion that the relation between the humans and the world is one sided. The truth is that just as the humans along with other beings contribute to the growth of the world even so the world comprising the physical social and cultural dimensions contributes to the evolution and progress of all beings including the humans. In short there is an organic relation between the jives and world and it is this organic relation that is sought to be conveyed by the hyphenated expression the Jiva-in-the-world. The jiva-in-the world is a pointer to a higher reality which though remains concealed in it supports and sustains it. Any philosophical system worth the name should as the first step inquire into both the jiva and the world with the view to ascertain the reality of both of them and also to discover the truth in an behind them. It is the latter that provides a true clear and intelligible picture of the jiva and the world. it may be pointed out in this connection that like philosophy science too is interested in discovering the truth or reality in everything that we experience including the phenomenon of man.
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