Different Elements & Forms of Hindustani Vocal Music

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Item Code: NAY649
Author: Maumita Banerjie
Publisher: Naitik Prakashan, Uttar Pradesh
Language: English
Edition: 2019
ISBN: 9789384776176
Pages: 194
Other Details 9.00 X 6.00 inch
Weight 400 gm
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Book Description
About The Book

The aim of this book is to present the elements of Hindustani vocal music and its vocal forms.

Indian classical Music possesses a special character of its own that encompasses Philosophy, Psychology, Spirituality and Aesthetics.

Indian music is called "Sangeet" that includes the art of playing musical instruments, singing and dancing. This Book aims to describe the voice, the forms & genres, the gharanas and elements of vocal music.

About the Author

Dr. Maumita Banerjie is a music educationist, Author, Graded Artist, Performer, Associated with many organizations related to Music, Performing Arts and Culture. She is a P.hd in Music from SNDT Mumbai University, M.Phil from Faculty of Music and Fine Arts Delhi University and M.A. from Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan.

She has a wide experience of teaching music for last 15 years to Graduate and Post Graduate students in University and college in Mumbai and Haryana. She is a graded vocalist of AIR.

Her write ups on performing arts and music publish regularly in prestigious magazines abroad and India. She is known for her interactive lecture demonstrations on various topics. Her publications on Voice Culture is an essential part of music courses in different universities and colleges and their libraries.


The different elements of Hindustani vocal music can be found in its various aspects, the ancient music text , different vocal forms their techniques and training and the traditional guru shishya parampara and gharanas.

Indian Music possesses a special character of its own. Its structure, temperament and method of improvisation has the most striking feature of being a synthesis between these four things-Philosophy, Psychology, Spirituality and Aesthetics .

The role of vocal music in ancient India was to assist in the performance' of religious ceremonies.

Even to-day most of the daily devotional duties are performed in chant or in rhythmical movements of the body.

In ancient time the singer's voice is denoted by the term Sarira.

"Sarira "has been defined as that which can bring out the beauties of a Raga without undergoing any training and has come out with in the body.

Indian music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world. The Indus Valley civilization left sculptures which show dance and musical instruments. Various types of stringed instruments and drums have been recovered from Harrappa and Mohenjo Daro like the seven holed flute.

The Veda has elements of present Indian music, with a musical notation to denote the metre and the mode of chanting. Early Indian musical tradition speaks of three accents and vocal music .

In early Indian musical tradition, Vocal music is known as "Samagan"( Sama meaning melody and Gan meaning to sing).

In india ,music is called Sangeet"which means the art of playing musical instruments,singing and dancing.

According to ancient Hindu scriptures, music was a gift from heaven, that is , a gift from the gods SHIVA ( the destroyer) BRAHMA ( the creator) and VISHNU ( the preserver).

The forms of Hindustani classical music were designed primarily for vocal performance, and many instruments were designed and evaluated according to how well they emulate the human voice.

The major vocal forms associated with Hindustani classical music are dhrupad, khayal, and thumri. Other forms include the dhamar, tarana, trivat, chaiti, kajari, tappa, tapkhayal, ashtapadi, ghazal and bhajan. Of these, some forms fall within the crossover to folk or semi-classical ('light' classical) music, as they often do not adhere to the rigorous rules and regulations of 'pure' classical music.

The most basic element that comprise "Indian Classical Music" are "Swara and Tala . Sa' Re' Ga' Ma' Pa' Dha' and Ni. These musical notes are the alphabet of music.

We have just these notes to express ourselves musically. This is the reason, these notes are said to be so important. In the Indian Classical Music, the teachers as well as the scholars of music insist on the practice of these notes. This process of getting control over the musical notes is called 'Swara-Saadhana .

In Indian music it is called Swar-Saadhana and in Western Music the technique of voice training is called Voice-Culture.

Hindustani Classical Music is based on Raagdari Sangeet. A Raga is a melodic scale, consisting of 7 (seven) Notes .The different combination of these 7 Swara's with various rules of permutation and combination make a "Raga".

Before learning a Raga the knowledge of Swar and Tala is very important because the correct position of the Swara (notes) in different Ragas can be recognized only after the practice of these 7 seven notes.

Gharana in Hindustani music denotes a community of performers who share a distinctive musical style that traces to a particular instructor or region. The notion of a gharana arose in the 19th century, but it was not until the 20th century that the gharana took shape as a veritable system for the transmission of classical music. The system emerged as a means by which musicians could maintain their artistic authority - through emphasis of the lineage-in an era of declining court patronage.

In the 21st century the gharana system remains a vital force in the validation of North Indian classical musicians.

A "distinctive musical style" in Hindustani tradition includes not only peculiarities of performance and repertoire but also a broader ideology of music, aesthetics, and pedagogy. That style must be passed down through three generations before it and its practitioners may be considered a gharana. Members of a gharana are entrusted with the maintenance of a certain standard of musicianship in accordance with the ideals of the lineage. Traditionally, students or disciples moved into the home of their teachers, which helped ensure the integrity of the musical transfer. Gharanas exist for both vocal and instrumental traditions.

**Contents and Sample Pages**

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