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Culture And History Of Ancient India (With Special Reference Of Sudras)

Culture And History Of Ancient India (With Special Reference Of Sudras)
$65.00
Item Code: NAW847
Author: Supriya Laxmi Mishra
Publisher: Crescent Publishing Corporation
Language: English
Edition: 2020
ISBN: 9789387537521
Pages: 501
Cover: HARDCOVER
Other Details: 9.50 X 5.50 inch
weight of the book: 0.61 kg
About The Book

The Aryan influence, some scholars claim, gave rise to what is known as the Vedic Period in India (c. 1700 -150 BCE) characterized by a pastoral lifestyle and adherence to the religious texts known as The Vedas. Society became divided into four classes (the Varnas) popularly known as 'the caste system' which were comprised of the Brahmana at the top (priests and scholars), the Kshatriya next (the warriors), the Vaishya (farmers and merchants), and the Shudra (labourers). The lowest caste was the Dalits, the untouchables, who handled meat and waste, though there is some debate over whether this class existed in antiquity. At first, it seems this caste system was merely a reflection of one's occupation but, in time, it became more rigidly interpreted to be determined by one's birth and one was not allowed to change castes nor to marry into a caste other than one's own. This understanding was a reflection of the belief in an eternal order to human life dictated by a supreme deity.

About the Author

Dr. Supriya Laxmi Mishra

July 2001 - September 2002 -Substitute Teacher, Motilal Nehru Public School, Jamshedpur (Affiliated CBSE)

July 2004 -November 2004 -System Trainee, International Auto Limited, Jamshedpur

July 2009 - Decs2010 Asst. Teacher, Vidya Jyoti School, Jamshedpur ( A Unit of JEM Foundation )

Aug 2012 to till date - Asst. Prof. (Faculty of Education) Jamshedpur Women's College , Jamshedpur.

Preface

Archaeological excavations have discovered artifacts used by early humans, including stone tools, which suggest an extremely early date for human habitation and technology in the area. While the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt have long been recognized for their celebrated contributions to civilization, India has often been overlooked, especially in the West, though her history and culture is just as rich. The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization and the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are generally described as the pre-Vedic and vedic periods. The earliest literary source that sheds light on India's past is the Rig Veda. It is difficult to date this work with any accuracy on the basis of tradition and ambiguous astronomical information contained in the hymns. It is most likely that Rig Veda was composed between 1,500 B.C. and 1,000 B.C. In the fifth century, large parts of India were united under Ashoka. The 6th Century B.C. was period of great tumult in India. The kingdom of Magadha, one of the 16 great Janapadas had become paramount over other kingdoms of the Ganges Valley. This period also saw the emergence of various heterodox seets in India. This was the time when Buddhism and Jainism emerged as popular protestant movements to pose a serious challenge to Brahmanic orthodoxy.

The Indus Valley Civilization dates to 5000 BCE and grew steadily throughout the lower Ganetic Valley region southwards and northwards in Malwa. The cities of this period were larger than contemporary settlements in other countries, were situated according to cardinal points, and were built of mud bricks, often kiln-fired. Houses were constructed with a large courtyard opening from the front door, a kitchen/work room for the preparation of food, and smaller bedrooms. Family activities seem to have centred on the front of the house, particularly the courtyard and, in this, are similar to what has been inferred from sites in Rome. Egypt, Greece, and Mesopotamia. The Aryan influence, some scholars claim, gave rise to what is known as the Vedic Period in India (c. 1700 - 150 BCE) characterized by a pastoral lifestyle and adherence to the religious texts known as The Vedas. Society became divided into four classes (the Varnas) popularly known as 'the caste system' which were comprised of the Brahmana at the top (priests and scholars), the Kshatriya next (the warriors), the Vaishya (farmers and merchants), and the Shudra (labourers). The lowest caste was the Dalits, the untouchables, who handled meat and waste, though there is some debate over whether this class existed in antiquity. At first, it seems this caste system was merely a reflection of one's occupation but, in time, it became more rigidly interpreted to be determined by one's birth and one was not allowed to change castes nor to marry into a caste other than one's own. This understanding was a reflection of the belief in an eternal order to human life dictated by a supreme deity. While the religious beliefs which characterized the Vedic Period are considered much older, it was during this time that they became systematized as the religion of Sanatan Dharma (which means 'Eternal Order') known today as Hinduism (this name deriving from the Indus (or Sindus) River where worshippers were known to gather, hence, 'Sindus', and then 'Hindus'). In the 6th century BCE, the religious reformers Vardhaman Mahavira (549-477 BCE) and Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) broke away from mainstream Sanatan Dharma to eventually create their own religions of Jainism and Buddhism.

Apart from Meeting the Requirements of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students of Indian Universities, The Book will serve as a useful guide to candidates for civil service examination.

**Contents and Sample Pages**










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