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Catur Dasa Laksani (Gadadhari with Two Commentaries) (An Old and Rare Book)

Item Code: NZT053
Author: N. Santanam Aiyar
Language: SANSKRIT
Edition: 1986
ISBN: 8185141002
Pages: 652
Other Details 9.00 X 6.00 inch
Weight 810 gm
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Book Description
THE Caturdasalaksani published here with Gadddhara's commentary and its two sub-commentaries-the Kmartzbhattiya of Ktsnambhatta and the Aryilyaratna of Raghunatha- forms one of the five major great works of discussion (Pancavadas) in Navya Nyaya, the other four being Pancalaksani, Siddhantalaksava, Avayava and Packrat. An intensive study of this work is considered essential for a proper understanding of the development of the concept of avyabhicaritatva or undepartable connection as a form of vyapti or pervasion.

Vyapti or pervasion between hetu (probans) and sadhya (probandum) is one of the most important topics discussed in Navya Nyaya. Earlier writers were aware of its importance, though they did not use the term; they used terms like avindbhava, 'invariable concomitance' and avyabhicara, `undepartable connection' for pervasion. Dignaga and Pragastapada are considered as the first writers to clarify the notion of pervasion. Manikai).the in his Nyiiyaratna gives eleven earlier definitions of pervasion and refutes each one of them. agadhara in his Nyilyasiddheintadipa discusses seventeen definitions of pervasion.

Gangegopadhyaya, the most important exponent of the Navya Nyaya School, discusses the early definitions of vyapti. The definition of it as avyabhicaritatva or 'un- idam vacya) deportable connection' is first taken, and the exact is knowable nature of this term examined. Gangega first presents vticyatva, a set of five definitions, slightly differing from one At the san another, of avyabhicaritatva, as follows: several of things) I introduced, tyadhikaralu This set is called Pancalaksani, pentad of definitions of even when pervasion. He then rejects all these definitions at one only as a stroke on the ground that none of them could be nameabilitl available as far as the inference of the kevalanvayi type is does not e concerned. relation. 1 in the ictus Gangega then quotes two more definitions of the sad) avyabhicaritatva offered by two earlier writers (known as Tarkikasirnha and Tarkikavyaghra, perhaps two titles) which are together known as Simhavyaghralaksana: Gangega rejects them also mainly on the same ground mentioned above.

The problem now is as follows:- In the case of a kevalanvayi (`only positive') type of inference as in idam vacyam, fileyatvat (`This is nameable, because it is knowable'), a negative example is impossible, since vcicyatva, the inferential, exists in all things at all times.

At the same time the concept of avyabhicaritatva and the various definitions of the same offered so far consist necessarily of the negation of the inferential or of that having the inferential. Hence the avyabhicaritatva concept, as it has been understood so far, cannot explain the vyapti required by the kevalcinvayi anumana. To solve this problem Saundalopadhyaya, a pre-Gangega Naiyayika, introduced, in the definition of vitiate, the concept of vyadhikaranadharmavacchinnabhava. According to this, even when a pot exists in a given place, it exists there only as a pot, and not as a cloth; similarly though nameability exists in everything, including the pot, it does not exist in it, as a thing having the Samavciya relation. Thus according to Saundalopadhyaya, even in the kevalcinvayi inference, the concept of negation of the sadhya viz., vacyatva could be introduced in the vyapti.

Book's Contents and Sample Pages

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