The programme of vocationalization of higher
and lower secondary education has been accepted by the country as it holds
great promise for linking education with the productivity and economic
development of the country. Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of
Vocational Education (PSSCIVE) has taken up an innovative project of
development of curricula and instructional materials for various vocational and
pre-vocational courses on the advice of the Joint Council of Vocational
The present title Batik is a commendable work
done by the Institute in meeting the requirements of instructional materials
for the students of pre- vocational courses. It has been developed by subject
experts and their contributions have been duly acknowledged.
I hope the students and teachers will find the manual
The National Policy on Education (1986)
envisages- that the implementation of a systematic and well-planned vocational
education programme is crucial to the proposed educational recognition. Keeping
this in view, a variety of vocational programmes and courses have been
introduced under the centrally sponsored scheme at the lower secondary, higher
secondary and college levels.
The paucity of appropriate instructional
materials has been felt as one of the major constraints in the implementation
of the vocational education programme at the lower secondary stage. The
erstwhile Department of Vocational Education of the National Council of
Educational Research and Training (NCERT), which has now become Pandit
Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education (PSSCIVE), has been
marking earnest efforts in developing instructional materials on various
subjects to fill the gap between the requirement and supply of books.
The present manual on Batik has been developed
by the Institute for pre-vocational courses. It also forms a part of handicraft
and other related vocational courses being offered in a number of states of the
country. It contains activity units to be performed by pupils, with simple
steps to follow, precautions to be taken and data to be obtained and processed.
It is hoped that the students will find it useful.
The manual has been developed by a group of
experts in a workshop held at the Pssclve. I am grateful to them for their invaluable
contributions in the development of the manual. I appreciate the efforts put in
by Dr Nalini Srivastava as Project Coordinator of the Working Group Meeting and
editing the material in the present form.
Suggestions for improvement of the manual are welcome.
Batik is the process of creating a pattern or
designs on cloth by wax resist technique. Indians used the resist method for
printing designs on cotton fabric. long before any other nation. Rice starch
mordants and wax were used for printing on fabrics. Indian dyes were the only
dyes available that could give bright and fast colours. The traditional Indian
technique involved preparation of the design on a wooden block, which was then
used to print the fabric with a layer of molten wax or starch paste. The cloth
was then dyed in red or blue.
Although batik had its roots in India because
reference of resist method are seen as early as the first century AD. While it
spread gradually to neighbouring countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand
and Sri Lanka, the interest in batik declined in India.
Indonesians developed this art and encouraged
batik strongly. They evolved new designs and improvised methods according to
local resources. It achieved an unrivalled degree of craftsmanship in Java
where an outstanding technique with use of complicated mechanical devices was
used for application of resist. The Javanese women of aristocracy used objects
in their natural surroundings such as birds, flowers, fruits, etc. to make elaborate
designs on fabrics. Other countries like Malaysia, Thailand and Sri Lanka also
made steady progress in batik.
In India the art was revived in the twentieth
century due to efforts made by Protima Devi, daughter of Rabindranath Tagore.
She introduced the batik as a course in Shanti Niketan. It spread in other
parts of the country but still a lot needs to be done. Batik in India can be
exploited to a maximum limit with a little more imagination, experimentation
and research in new techniques. India has all the necessary raw materials and
climatic conditions to do batik. Government intervention is needed to harness
the free time of women in villages to provide quality batik.
Batik has attained a worldwide prominence.
Batik is a medium which can be tried as a hobby or as an outlet for creativity.
The traditional batik was stylised, modern batik has evolved into a
individualistic means of expression with unlimited scope.
Now a days batik as a craft has captured the
interest of artists, students and housewives. Batik offers something unique and
personal as well as aesthetic charm of a handwork as against the mass produced
Until recently batik process was used to
produce dress materials and clothing. But today many artists are experimenting
with new techniques and are combining traditional methods with new techniques
to produce batik pieces which are livelier and brighter. It has opened new
avenues for the use of batik Beautiful murals, wall paintings and household
articles are prepared. Batik has an international market which can be explored
to its-fullest for the benefit of the people.
Materials, Tools and Equipment Needed for Batik
Selection and Treatment of Cloth for Batik
Selection of Designs
Preparation of Wax
Applying Wax by Various Techniques
Colour and Colour Combinations
Preparation of Colour Solution
Dewaxing of the Cloth
Finishing of the Cloth
Preparation of a Wall Piece by Batik Process
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