The richness of Indian music lies in its sentiments of the Rasa, that springs
rhythmic patterns called as the Taal, and each Taal has its own thrilling effects
of excitement, which acts on its own way upon all human beings.
Only a few out of many obscure Taals current at present, Ada Chowtal is one of
such. That was formerly common and popular all musicians even a few decades ago.
Unfortunately, due to lack of practice and non-availability of the traditional
compositions set in this Taal, it is now on the way of its extinction.
Illustrious essays or the Gata are exhibited in this little book. Though rare,they
also represent the cultural heritage of the traditionalists of the by-gone days.
Ten parent scales excluding the male Puriya-Dhanashree of the modern system of
music are illustrated at length in the text.
The present work is a concise presentation of Rezakhani Baj on a few melodious
Raagas-all set only in Ada Chowtal. It covers the courses of studies as prescribed
by different Universities for their various examinations in music. The compositions
are symbolic by itself. Hence, the awakening of the latent talents in all lovers of
Sitar of all times.
This is the only rare book of reference to Poorav Baj in Ada Chowtal.
Shri Shripada Bandyopadhyaya acquired a deep and sound knowledge of the theory and
practice of Hindustani Classical music and in the art of playing Sitar from the
unequivocal masters. Pandit Bhatkhande, the late Ustad Alauddin khan, the ardent
disciple of Ustaad Wazir khan-the great Veenakar and last representative of Sania
Gharana. He got the degrees of Sangeet and Vaidya Visharad, B. Mus.
Shi Bandyopadhyaya was a member was a member of the Faculty of Music and Fine Arts,
University of Delhi and of the famous Bhatkhande Sangeet Vidyapith, Lucknow.
He served the faculties of Music of the leading Universities either as a member or
as an examiner, or as both. He was working in the capacity of Principal of Bhartiya
Sangeet Vidyalaya, Delhi. He is a noted author of the books: Indian Music through
the Ages (1985), Sangeet Bhashay (1985) (In Hindi), Indian Music through the Ages
(1985), Techniques of Sitar (1988) and Wisdom of Raga (1991).
The evolution, growth and dissolution of all animate inanimate objects of this
universe is due mainly to the five et ernal elements of nature, called by the
ancient seers of the orient as prakriti, i.e. the nature.
The term prakriti in other words, the nature or the character not only refers to
the tendencies, behaviours and also the habits and costoms of all living beings on
earth, but the bounteous resources of immense varieties unique of their own availed
spontaneously by all creatures and things are also expressed in the aforesaid word
The earth or soil, one of the substances of nature, provides the essential victuals
full of vitamins, minerals and proteins of all kinds not only to all terrestrial
bodies but also the shrubs, plants and trees to keep them all physically fit and
mentally resolute to struggle for existance and fulfil numerous desires-the vasana,
their own creations.
Vasana, the desire or will is the root cause of all tendencies either good or evil,
that generates from the atmosphere, surroundings, and associates in which one lives
and also the food and water he or she eats and drinks to keep up the vitality. Such
vicissitude leads all living beings, particularly, the man kind to be sensitive,
observant and admirers of beauty in all phenolmenons of nature by birth.
As a matter of fact, everything in this world is under direct influence and control
of numerous effects of prakriti-the nature, that is why, the wise men of the east
and the savants of the west, since the dawn of civilisation striving very hard in
search and research of the mystries of the invisible omnipotent through its
perceivable medium universally known as the Nature or PRAKRITI.
Audible sound is the consequence of the union of energy or heat and ether, the two
most important among the five main elements of nature, that acts upon the hearing
organs of all creatures and induces them to hear and understand the secrecy of the
sweet language of and enjoy the same according to ones intelligence and power of
grasping owned by birth as an instinct, called Samskar.
The effect of sweet and melodious on human beings is of course inevitable and
amazing. Inspite of that it is too difficult and almost impossible to analyse and
explain the feelings, that are beyond the rang of common conception of all man kind
on reasonable grounds.
These fundamentals are all explained at length by all men of letters of far off
days, in almost all treatises on religion, myths and music of all the nationals of
the world in an emotional way of their own. Hence, it is upto persons concerned
either to believe or disbelieve their conjectures according to the knowledge and
experience of the medias concerned.
Nevertheless, the term nature (prakriti), instincts (samakar) and desires (vasana)
are all related to each other and they are reciprocal. Consequently, their action
and reactions o all living beings on earth are not only unavoidable but also a
must. Owing to all these inborn propensities owned normally more or less by all
human beings, few of them gifted with the talents by providence took fancy to it
and cultured music, the out come of judicial combinations of melodious sound and
thrilling rhythm in a fanciful way, so as to devise new tunes and also set them all
into different rhythmic articulations. These articulations or different patterns of
rhythm are called as Tal and the tunes or modes as Rag.
It is worthwhile to note here, that one and the same Rag of Hindustani music, if
and when is set into different Tals, produces feelings and experience of varied
nature. Consequently, the effect of each and every Rag depends absolutely on
rhythm, that elevates joy and pleasure in the minds of the listeners.
All conjectures expressed by the experts about aesthetics-the beauty, i.e. the
sweetness in music, the only source of peace and pleasure of the body and mind, had
always been controversial. As none could state firmly on scientific lines, the
direct and easiest way to elevate and maintain the various aspects of feelings-the
outcome of Rag and Tal, that makes all cheerful and happy. Yet, it has throughout
been unanimously acknowledged by all musicologists of all times, that the three
fold arts of music is the only source pleasure and happiness to mankind.
It is also to be stated here, that the observers of fine arts and culture believed
firmly, that the effect of sweet sound produced from all types of wind, plucked and
bowed instruments acts marvellously upon the exhausted brain of all human folk,
sooths and also alleviates their all fatigues of the body and mind.
The instant effect of rhythm on all creatures on earth is full of live and energy-
the prime factors of all sources of physical actions and enthusiasm.
The idea underlying the aforesaid statement, may also be expressed by stating, that
at the helm of anything and everything created in this world, there exists an
eternal law of harmony or rhythm. Pleasure and pain are its everlasting twins.
Pleasure is the expression of harmonious relation between the parts, whatever it
might be, whereas, the lack of harmony is at the root of pain and disgust.
North Indian Music (277)
Original Texts (59)
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